Sardinian States, Or Kingdom Of Sardinia, formerly a government of Italy, comprising the island of Sardinia, Piedmont (in the wider sense, including Saluzzo, Montferrat, and the W. part of the duchy of Milan), Genoa, Savoy, and Nice. The last two portions have been annexed to France, while all the other states, as well as Lombardy, which was united with Sardinia in 1859, are now embraced in the kingdom of Italy. Previous to the annexation of Lombardy and the cession of Savoy and Nice, the Sardinian states extended over an area of nearly 30,000 sq. m., with a population of about 5,000,000. The origin of the kingdom dates from the negotiations which followed the treaties of Utrecht and Rastadt, and resulted in the quadruple alliance of Aug. 2, 1718. Victor Amadeus II. of Savoy, who assumed the title of king of Sardinia in 1720, resigned in 1730 in favor of his son Charles Emanuel III., but soon made an ineffectual attempt to recover the crown, and died a prisoner in 1732. Sardinia received numerous additions under Charles Emanuel III. His son Victor Amadeus III., who succeeded him in 1773, was finally overpowered by Napoleon in 1796, shortly before his death, and obliged to surrender Savoy and Nice to France. His son Charles Emanuel IV. was forced in 1798 to retire to the island of Sardinia; Piedmont was annexed to France, Sept. 11, 1802, and until 1814 continental Sardinia remained part of that empire.
On his abdication in June, 1802, he was succeeded by his brother Victor Emanuel I., who was restored in 1814, and reėstablished absolutism. Savoy was reannexed to Sardinia, and Genoa was added to it by the congress of Vienna. Victor Emanuel I., during a military insurrection headed by Santa Rosa and others, abdicated in 1821 in favor of his brother Charles Felix, in whose absence Charles Albert, of the younger line of Savoy-Carignan, assumed the regency, proclaimed the Spanish constitution of 1820, and established a provisional junta. Charles Felix, aided by Russia and Austria, was restored and undid his relative's work; but as the elder branch of the house of Savoy became extinct in his person, April 27, 1831, Charles Albert ascended the throne. In 1848 he promulgated the statuto fondamentale, which is the basis of the present constitution of Italy. He was involved in the same year in a war with Austria, was vanquished by Radetzky, renewed the war in 1849, and was utterly defeated at Novara, March 23. (See Charles Albert, vol. v., p. 300.) He abdicated, and was succeeded by his son Victor Emanuel II., who, after a war with Austria in 1859, in which he was aided by Napoleon III., annexed Lombardy and other states, and finally became master of all Italy. (See Italy, Savoy, and Victor Emanuel).