Bhopaul, Or Bopal

Bhopaul, Or Bopal. I. A native state of Malwah, Hindostan, between lat. 22° 32' and 23° 46' N, and lon. 76° 25' and 78° 50' E., traversed partly by the Vindhya mountains and watered by the Nerbudda and other rivers; area nearly 7,000 sq. m.; pop. about 600,000, chiefly Hindoos. The territory is ruled by a nawaub under the political tutelage of Great Britain. Dost Mohammed Khan, an Afghan, conquered Bhopaul in 1723. Since 1818 the English have asserted their political ascendancy, but not without many complications. During the sepoy rebellion in 1857-'8, the Bhopaul mutineers were defeated Jan. 12, 1858, by Gen. Rose, and a number of them were put to death. II. A town, capital of the state, and the seat of the British political resident, about 300 m. S.W. of Allahabad. The old fortifications of the town are dilapidated.

Bhutan

Bhutan. See Bootan.

Biafra

Biafra. I. A small kingdom of W. Africa, on the bight or bay of the same name. It lies between the equator and hit. 5° N., and extends only a small distance into the interior. The principal town, of the same name, is situated not far from the coast. II. Bight of, the eastern part of the gulf of Guinea, extending from Cape Formosa on the north to Cape Lopez on the south. The delta of the Niger projects between it and the bight of Benin, some of the mouths of that river being upon either bay. it also receives the rivers Old Calabar, Cameroons, and Gaboon. It contains, the islands of Fernando Po. belonging to Spain, and Principe and St. Thomas, to Portugal.

Bialystok

Bialystok (Ruse. Bielostok), a town of Russia, in the government of Grodno, formerly in the Polish province of Podlachia, on a small tributary of the Narew, capital of a circle of the same name, 46 m. S. W. of Grodno; pop. in 1869, 16.985, about 12,000 of whom are Jews and nearly 4,000 Roman Catholics. The town is well built, mostly with one-story brick houses. It has a beautiful castle, formerly belonging to the counts Rranicki, but now to the municipality, adjoining which are superb pleasure grounds. Leather, cloth, cotton and woollen goods, soap, and other articles are manufactured, and there is an active trade, chiefly in grain and timber, with Poland, the fairs being very lively. Together with the territory now forming the circle, the town was transferred to Prussia at the partition of Poland in 1795, and in 1807 to Russia by the treaty of Tilsit, when this part of Podlachia was formed into a separate district, subsequently united with Grodno.

Bianchini Francesco

Bianchini Francesco, an Italian astronomer and author, born in Verona, Dec. 13, 1662, died in Rome, March 2, 1729. He studied under Montanari, and, though he took holy orders, he devoted himself to science. His merits won for him a high position under four successive popes; he became secretary of a committee for the reform of the calendar, drew a meridian line through Italy, but did not complete this work, superintended the antiquities of Rome, and proposed the establishment of a museum of sacred monuments. He was an associate member of the French academy, and was ennobled. His works include Istoria universale promta con monumenti (Rome, 1697); a volume of his astronomical and geographical observations (Verona, 1737); Opm-cula Varia (2 vols., 1754); and an edition of the Vitm Romanorum Pontificum by Anasta-sius, which was finished by his nephew (4 vols., 1718-34).