Jan Lefraneq Van Berkley

Jan Lefraneq Van Berkley, a Dutch naturalist and poet, born Jan. 23, 1729, died in Leyden in March, 1812. He was the author of various works upon the natural sciences, of which the best was the "Natural History of Holland " (Amsterdam, 1769), and was appointed professor of natural history in the university of Leyden in 1773. As a member of the Orange party he was afterward subjected to great persecution, and in his old age was reduced to poverty, and obliged to sell his fine scientific collections and to depend upon his relations. He published several volumes of poetry.

Jan Mabuse

Jan Mabuse, a Flemish painter, whose real name was Gossaert, born in Maubeuge, Hai-naut, about 1499, died about 1562. He is said to have studied painting in Italy, after which he practised his art in various cities of the Netherlands, leading at the same time a dissipated and scandalous life. During the reign of Henry VIII. he found his way to England, | and painted several of the royal family and many persons of distinction. He was the contemporary and friend of Albert Durer and Lucas van Leyden. His most celebrated picture, the "Descent from the Cross," perished in the fire which destroyed the cathedral of Middel-burg, where it was deposited. The finest of the authenticated works passing under his name is "The Wise Men's Offering," now in the possession of the earl of Carlisle.

Jan Mayen

Jan Mayen, a volcanic island in the Arctic ocean, situated between Iceland and Spitzber-gen, about 200 m. from the E. coast of Greenland. It contains the snow-clad volcano Bee-renberg, nearly 7,000 ft. high, covered by large glaciers and frozen waterfalls. Another active volcano, the Esk (1,500 ft. high), was discovered by Scoresby in 1817. The island was discovered by the Dutch navigator Jan Mayen in 1611. It is not habitable, abounds in bears, foxes, and sea fowl, and is described by Lord Dufferin in his " Letters from High Latitudes."

Jan Sahib

Jan Sahib, a Hindoo poetess, born at Fur-ruckabad in 1820. She received a superior education, and became proficient in letters, in music, and in the Persian language. She published in 1846 at Lucknow, where she resides, a collection of poems (Divan), which are greatly admired by her countrymen.

Jan Steen

Jan Steen, a Dutch painter, born in Leyden in 1636, died in Delft in 1689. He studied under Brouwer and Van Goyen, whose daughter he married. According to Kugler, he brought into full play all the elements of genuine low comedy. In the museum at the Hague is his well known " Representation of Human Life." He painted in all about 300 pictures. - See J. Steen, Etude sur l'art en Hollande, by Van Westrheenen (the Plague, 1856).

Jan Stephan Van Calcar

Jan Stephan Van Calcar, a Flemish painter of the Venetian school, born at Calcar in the duchy of Cleves in 1499 or 1500, died in Naples in 1546. He was a pupil of Jan van Eyck, afterward studied at Venice under Titian, and finally practised his art at Naples. At Padua he designed the illustrations to Vesali's anatomical work, which for a long time were ascribed to Titian. Rubens possessed a " Nativity "by him, which he valued highly, and which at his death was purchased by Sandrart, who subsequently sold it to the emperor Ferdinand. One of his most celebrated pictures was the Mater Dolorosa. The portrait of a man with red beard, executed by him in 1540, is in the Louvre.