John E. Hodgson, an English painter, born in London in 1811. He is the son of a merchant at St. Petersburg, passed the early part of his life in his father's counting house, and subsequently studied at the royal academy in London. He spent some time in Tunis and other parts of the East, and acquired reputation by humorous and genre pictures. Among these are "The Reorganization of the Army of Morocco" and "A Snake Charmer," exhibited in 1872. He was elected an associate of the royal academy in 1873.
John Eachard, an English divine, born in Suffolk in 1636, died July 7, 1697. He was a fellow of Cambridge, in 1675 succeeded Dr. Lightfoot as master of Catharine hall, and early became known by his satires against the clergymen of his time. He wrote upon "The Grounds and Occasions of the Contempt of the Clergy and Religion," which he attributed to the insufficient salaries of clergymen, and the consequent necessity for them to eke out a living by unbecoming means. The work passed rapidly through six editions, and drew down upon its author abundant criticisms. He published two dialogues upon Hobbes's "State of Nature," in which he humorously attacked the ideas of that philosopher. An edition of his works was published in 1714, in 3 vols. 12mo.
John Edwards Holbrook, an American naturalist, born in Beaufort, S. C, in 1795, died in Norfolk, Mass., Sept. 8, 1871. He graduated at Brown university in 1815, studied medicine in Philadelphia, spent two years in Italy, Germany, and Paris, established himself in Charleston in 1822, and in 1824 was chosen professor of anatomy in the medical college of South Carolina. His most important work is the "American Herpetology, or a Description of Reptiles inhabiting the United States" (5 vols., Philadelphia, 1842). He began a work on " Southern Ichthyology," but finding the field too wide, he confined his labors to the fishes of South Carolina. Of this work ten numbers were published (Charleston, 1854 et seq.), when the publication was stopped by the outbreak of the civil war.
John Eliot, an American clergyman, born in Boston, May 31, 1754, died there, Feb. 14, 1813. With Dr. Belknap he cooperated in establishing the Massachusetts historical society, and in 1809 published the "New England Biographical Dictionary." He also published sermons and biographies.
John Emile Lemoinne, a French journalist, born in London, of French parents, in 1814. He completed his studies in Paris, and became one of the editors of the Journal dcs Debats. It was mainly due to his influence that this journal opposed the royalist schemes in 1872, which led to the secession of St. Marc Girardin and other editors from that journal. Thiers appointed Lemoinne librarian of the palace of Fontainebleau. He is one of the regular writers for the Revue des Deux Mondes, and the author of many works relating to England, Ireland, and the East, chiefly in connection with British and Russian conflicts. Among his other writings are: La vie de Brummel (1844); La cour de Berlin, La cour de Saint-Petersbourg, and Caroline de Brunswick (1846). In 1862 he collected a number of his biographical and critical essays under the title of Etudes biographiques et critiques.