Jonas Hanway, an English author, born in Portsmouth in 1712, died in London, Sept. 5, 1786. The earlier part of his life was passed in mercantile pursuits in St. Petersburg, during which he visited Persia, and published a " Historical Account of British Trade over the Caspian Sea, with a Journal of Travels,'1 etc. (4 vols. 4to, London, 1753-'4). In 1756 he published a "Journal of Eight Days' Journey from Portsmouth to Kingston-upon-Thames; to which is added an Essay upon Tea and its Pernicious Consequences;" which caused Dr. Johnson to remark that "Jonas acquired some reputation by travelling abroad, but lost it all by travelling at home." He wrote nearly 70 pamphlets, mostly devoted to philanthropic schemes. He was mainly instrumental in founding the London marine educational society, and the Magdalen society. He was the first man in England who ventured to brave public opinion by carrying an umbrella. There is a monument to him in Westminster abbey.
Jonathan, brother of Judas Maccaba?us. See Hebrews, vol. viii., p. 592.
Jonathan Boucher, an English clergyman, born in Cumberland, March 12, 1738, died at Epsom, April 27, 1804. He went to Virginia about 1754 as a private teacher, afterward took orders in England, and was a rector in Virginia and Maryland till 1775, when he returned to England, his anti-revolutionary sentiments having given umbrage to his American congregation. From 1784 till his death he was vicar of Epsom. He is the author of " A View of the Causes and Consequences of the American Revolution, in 13 Discourses," dedicated to Washington (8vo, 1797), and of a "Glossary of Archaic and Provincial Words, "intended as a supplement to Johnson's dictionary (A, 1802; A to G, 1807; enlarged ed., 1832).
Jonathan Carver, an American traveller, born at Stillwater, N. Y., in 1732, died in London, Jan. 31, 1780. He abandoned the study of medicine for a military life, bought an en-signcy, became a captain, and served in the war by which the Canadas came into the pos-session of Great Britain. At the conclusion of peace in 1763 he undertook to explore the interior of North America, and to open new channels of commerce. He penetrated to the Minnesota river, and returned to Boston in 1768. Proceeding to England, he unsuccessfully solicited from the king requital of his expenses, and aid in publishing his charts and journals. He was even commanded to deliver up his papers, now ready for publication, as being the property of the government, and was obliged to repurchase them from the bookseller to whom he had sold them. In 1778 he published Travels through the Interior Parts of North America," and in 1779 a "Treatise on the Culture of the Tobacco Plant."
Jonathan Dymond, an English author, born in Exeter in 1796, died May 6, 1828. The son of a linen draper, and himself engaged in the business, he composed his books amid the pressure of other occupations. He was a member of the society of Friends. He published in 1823 an "Inquiry into the Accordance of War with the Principles of Christianity," a work which attracted much attention. His fame rests chiefly on his "Essays on the Principles of Morality," published in 1829, soon after the death of the author.