Julias Capitolinus, a Roman historian, who lived toward the end of the 3d century, and wrote the lives of nine emperors. He is one of the writers of the Historia Augusta, in the editions of whom his works are to be found.
Julias Weisbach, a German mathematician, born near Annaberg, Saxony, Aug. 10, 1806, died in Freiberg, Feb. 24, 1871. He studied at Freiberg, Gottingen, and Vienna, and in 1833 became professor of applied mathematics in the Freiberg academy. By his introduction of the "coefficient of resistance" into mathematical calculations, and his discovery of the "incomplete contraction" of water, according to the nature of the orifice whence it flows, he greatly simplified and advanced the science of hydraulics. The most important of his numerous works are: Lehrbuch der Ingenieurund Maschinenmechanik (3 vols., Brunswick, 1845-'54; new ed., 1868-'70; English translations of the first two volumes by L. Gordon, London, 1847-8, and by W. R. Johnson, Philadelphia, 1849), and Der Ingenieur (Brunswick, 1848; 5th ed., 1869).
Julie Aimee Tan Steenkiste Dorus-Gras, a French soprano singer, born in Valenciennes in 1813. She was engaged at the grand opera of Paris in 1830, and remained there upward of 20 years, when she retired with her husband M. Gras, a violinist. Her chief parts were in Guillaume Tell, La muette de Portici, Fer-nand Cortez, Robert le Diable, Les Huguenots, and La Juice. Her voice had great compass and flexibility, and she was distinguished by brilliancy of execution and dramatic delivery.
Julie Burow, a German novelist, born at Kydullen, Prussia, Feb. 24,1806, died in Brom-berg, Feb. 19, 1868. She was educated in El-bing, removed to Dantzic in 1823, and in 1830 married the architect Pfannenschmidt. Her first novel, Frauenloos (3 vols., Konigsberg, 1850), was followed by Aus dem Leben eines Glucklichen (3 vols., 1852). Among her later works are Johannes Kepler (3 vols., Prague, 1857-65), and Die Preussen in Prag (1867). She also wrote poetry and on the education of women and children, and in 1857 published her autobiography.
Julius Hammer, a German author, born in Dresden, June 7, 1810, died at Pilnitz, Aug. 23, 1862. In 1831 he began the study of law at the university of Leipsic, but gave special attention to philosophy and a3Sthetics. In 1834, in conjunction with Ludwig Tieck and Theodor Hell, he produced the successful play Das 8eltsame Fruhstuck, and thereafter devoted himself to literature. He wrote dramas, novels, and poems, and gave dramatic readings. Among his novels are Adelig und Burgerlich (1838), Leben und Traum (1839), Stadt- und Landgeschichten (1845), and Einkehr und Um-kehr (1856). His principal poems are Schau urn dich und Schau in dich (1851), Zu alien, guten Stunden (1854), and Lerne, liele, lebe (1862). In his later years he devoted himself to oriental study, and published Unter dem Halbmond, (1860), and Die Psalmen der heili-gen Schrift (1861).