Lndovico Antonio Muratori, an Italian scholar, horn at Vignola, in the duchy of Modena, Oct. 21, 1672. died in Modena, Jan. 23, 1750. He was educated at the university of Modena, was ordained priest, and in 1694 was appointed keeper of the Ambrosian library at Milan, where he discovered several inedited Latin and Greek manuscripts, selections from which, with notes and commentaries, he published under the titles of Anecdota Latino, and Anecdote Groeca. In 1700 he became conservator of the public archives and principal librarian of Modena. His three great works are Rerum Italicarum Scriptores (25 vols, fob, Milan, 1723-'51), Antiquitates Italicoe Medii Aevi (6 vols, fob, 1738-42), and Annali d'Italia (12 vols., 1744-'9). To publish this vast collection several princes and nobles of Italy subscribed $4,000 each. The best uniform edition of his works is that published at Venice (48 vols. 8vo, 1790-1810).
Lndwig Knaus, a German painter, born at Wiesbaden, Oct. 5, 1829. He studied in Dtis-seldorf, and became famous in 1850 by his admirable genre pictures of humble life. He resided in Paris from 1853 to 1861, in Berlin from 1861 to 1866, and in Dusseldorf from 1866 to 1874, .when he was appointed minister of art at Berlin. Besides many portraits, his works include. "The Gamblers," "Peasants' Dance," " The Funeral," " A Fair, with a Chief hunted by the Police," "The Gypsies," "The Golden Wedding," "After Baptism," "The Juggler in the Barn," and more recently " The Coffee Hour" and "Mud Pies." Engravings of his works are especially popular among the German peasantry.
Lndwig Wilhelm I Baden-Baden., margrave of, a German general, born in Paris, April 8, 1655, died at Rastadt, Jan. 4,1707. Louis XIV. was his godfather. He served first under Mon-tecuculi against Turenne, and then under the duke of Lorraine. At the siege of Vienna by the Turks, in 1683, he threw his forces into the city, and by a brilliant sally effected a junction with King Sobieski and the duke of Lorraine, who had come to its relief. In 1689 he defeated the Turks at Nissa, and in 1691 at Salankamen. He also took an active part in the war against France in 1693, and after the death of Sobieski in 1696 aspired to the crown of Poland; but the elector of Saxony was preferred to him. He again commanded in the campaign of 1702, in the war of the Spanish succession, and took Landau, but was subsequently defeated by Villars at Friedlingen and at Hochstadt. He built the famous lines of Stollhofen from the Black Forest through Buhl and Stollhofen to the Rhine.
Lnigi Cagnola, marquis, an Italian architect, born in Milan in 1762, died Aug. 14, 1833. Although born of a noble family and educated for political life, a passion for architecture nevertheless absorbed him. His greatest works are two triumphal arches at Milan, one known as the arco delta pace, originally built of wood on occasion of the marriage of Eugene Beau-harnais in 1806, but finally finished in marble after Cagnola's death; the other is the Porta di Marengo, an Ionic propylasum of great beauty. He also built the campanile at Ur-gnano, an ornate structure 190 ft. high, and several churches at Milan and elsewhere, the finest being at Ghisalba in the Bergamese. Some of his designs were on a scale so magnificent as to be wholly impracticable. One of these was for a hospice on Mont Cenis, with 110 columns, each 11 ft. in diameter.