See Matthias Corvinus.
Matthias Jakob Schleiden, a German botanist, born in Hamburg, April 5, 1804. He was professor of botany at Jena from 1839 to 1862, and of vegetable chemistry and anthropology at Dorpat in 1863-'4, subsequently residing at Dresden. His principal works are: Grundzüge der wissenschaftlichen Botanik (2 vols., Leipsic, 1842-'3; 4th ed., 1861; translated into English by Dr. Lankester, London, 1849); Die Pflanze und ihr Leben (6th ed. Leipsic, 1864; translated by Prof. Henfrey, London, 1848); Baum und Wald (1870); and Die Rose (1873).
Mattia Preti (called IL Calabrese), an Italian painter, born at Taverna, Calabria, in 1613, died in Malta in 1699. He studied under Lan-franco and Guercino, and painted in the manner of the eclectic Bolognese school. Among his chief undertakings was a series of frescoes in the cathedral of Malta illustrating subjects from the life of St. John the Baptist. Many of his works were executed for churches in Rome, Bologna, Venice, and Naples. He was noted for inventive power and boldness. His subjects are generally gloomy or tragic.
Maubeuge, a fortified town of France, in the department of Le Nord, on the Sambre, 46 m. S. E. of Lille; pop. in 1866, 10,877. It is well built, and has long been important in a military point of view. Its fortifications were reconstructed by Vauban in 1680. After the battle of Waterloo it was captured by the Prussians. It has iron founderies, tanneries, salt refineries, and marble works.
Mauna Kea, the highest mountain in the Hawaiian islands and in Polynesia; elevation, as estimated by the United States exploring expedition, 13,953 ft. It occupies the northern and central parts of Hawaii, and is a dome of volcanic formation, with terminal craters that have long been extinct. Though steeper and apparently rougher in surface than Mauna Loa, it is easier to ascend, owing to the greater degradation of the lavas which form its slope. Snow rests upon it during the greater part of the year. The terminal peaks are truncated cones of gravel and reddish scoria; the angle of their outer slope is about 30°. Herds of wild cattle roam in the forests that cover the flanks of the mountain, and are hunted for the sake of their horns, hides, and tallow.
See Holy Week.
Maurice Bourdin, an antipope, born in Limousin, France, died at Fumone, Papal States, in 1122. He was arch priest of the diocese of Toledo in 1095, afterward bishop of Coim-bra, and in 1110 archbishop of Braga. Pope Paschal II. sent him as legate to Henry V. of Germany, but excommunicated him for having crowned the emperor without authority, and for other acts of insubordination. After the death of Paschal and the election of Gela-sius II. (1118), the emperor set up Bourdin as an antipope under the name of Gregory VIII., and drove Gelasius from Rome. But the opposition of the clergy rendered his position untenable, and after the death of Gelasius (1119) Henry was reconciled with Oalixtus II., the legitimate successor to the papal see. The fugitive antipope was brought back ignomin-iously to Rome and imprisoned for the rest of his life in the castle of Fumone.