Orris Root

See Iris.

Orthoptera

Orthoptera, an order of insects, with chewing jaws, two rather thick and opaque upper wings, slightly overlapping on the back, and two larger thin, plaited, straight wings under these; they undergo partial transformation, and the larvae and pupae, though wingless, are active. It contains the four groups of runners (earwigs and cockroaches), graspers (mantes or soothsayers), walkers (spectres and walking leaves), and jumpers (crickets, grasshoppers, and locusts). The mantes are carnivorous, and the other groups are more or less destructive to vegetation and household articles. Some of the strangest insect forms occur in this order.

Ortygia

See Delos, and Syracuse.

Orvet

See Blinpworm.

Oryx

See Antelope.

Osage River

See Missoruri, vol. xi., p. 664.

Osaka

See Ozaka.

Osborne

Osborne, a N. county of Kansas, intersected by the S. fork of Solomon river; area, 900 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 33. The surface is rolling and consists mostly of prairies; the soil is good. Capital, Osborne.

Oscans

See Italic Races and Languages.

Oscar II

Oscar II, king of Sweden and Norway, third son of the preceding, born Jan. 21, 1829. He succeeded his brother Charles XV. on Sept. 18, 1872. He has continued the policy of his predecessors, endeavoring to enlarge the liberty and increase the prosperity of all classes of the people. He has carried out measures of reform pending at the time of his brother's death, especially the law abolishing stamp duties on journals. He married, June 6, 1857, Sophia, daughter of William, duke of Nassau, and has four children: Gustavus, Oscar, Charles, and Eugene.

Oscoda

Oscoda, a N. E. county of the S. peninsula of Michigan, intersected by the Au Sable river; area, 576 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 70. The surface consists of rolling table lands; the soil has but moderate fertility.

Osel

See Oesel.

Oshima

Oshima (big island), the name usually applied by the Japanese to the larger of a pair of adjacent islands, the smaller being called Koshima (little island). The 0 of the first is long; that of the second, short. Oshima, off the province of Idzu, is the best known of the many oshimas in Japanese waters. Foreigners sometimes call it Vries or Barneveld's island. It is the largest and most northern of the chain fronting the gulf of Yedo, is oval, about 8 m. long and 5 m. wide. At its centre is an active volcano, 2,556 ft. high, over which a white vapor cloud is usually floating, which at night often reflects like a mirror the glare of the fires in the crater, and forms a beacon for the mariner. In clear weather the island is a conspicuous landmark, visible for many leagues. The slopes of the mountains are well cultivated, and there are many villages with a considerable population. There is a junk harbor in the S. E. point of the island.

Oshmooveyn, Or Ashmoonein

See Hermo-polis Magna.

Oskaloosa

Oskaloosa, a city and the capital of Mahaska co., Iowa, on the Keokuk and Des Moines Valley and the Central Iowa railroads, 55 m. E. S. E. of Des Moines; pop. in 1870, 3,204; in 1875, 5,500, the city having been enlarged. It is situated on an elevation between the Des Moines and South Skunk rivers, and is well drained. It contains two planing mills, three founderies and machine shops, two flouring mills, two woollen factories, gas works, a grain elevator, a national and two private banks, and four hotels. There are three public school buildings, four weekly newspapers, and 12 churches. It is the seat of two colleges: Os-kaloosa college, established in 1861, under the control of the Disciples, and Penn college, founded in 1873, belonging to the Friends. The former in 1873-'4 had 5 instructors and 254 students, and the latter 5 instructors and 219 students.