Otto Ludwig

Otto Ludwig, a German poet, born at Eisfeld, Saxe-Meiningen, Feb. 11, 1813, died in Dresden, Feb. 25, 1865. He studied music in Leipsic under Mendelssohn, but ill health preventing him from pursuing that profession, he engaged in literary pursuits. His principal works are the tragedies Der Erbforster (Leipsic, 1853), Die Makkabaer (1855), Agnes Bernauer (1857); the tales Zwischen Himmel und Erde (Frankfort, 1856), and Thuringer Naturen (1857); and the posthumous works Reden oder Schwei-gen, Der Todte von St. Anna's Kapelle (Berlin, 1871), and Shakespeare-Studien, the latter edited by Heyderich (Leipsic, 1871).

Otto Muller

Otto Muller, a German novelist, born at Schotten, Hesse-Darmstadt, June 1, 1816. He began his career as a librarian and a journalist, and resided in various places till 1856, when he settled in Stuttgart. He early published a series of novels, and in 1845 appeared his Burger, ein deutsches Dichterleben, which was followed by Georg Volker and other political novels. In 1854 appeared his admirable Charlotte Ackermann. Among his subsequent novels are Der Klosterhof (1859), Aus Petrar-ca's alten Tagen (1862), Erzählungen und Cha-rakterbilder (1865), Der Wildpfarrer (1866), Der Professor von Heidelberg (1870), Der Fall von Konstanz (1872), and Der Majoratsherr (1873). His Ausgewahlte Schriften appeared in Stuttgart (12 vols., 1874).

Otto Of Roses

See Attar of Roses.

Otto Von Guericke

Otto Von Guericke, a German natural philosopher, born in Magdeburg, Nov. 20, 1602, died in Hamburg, May 11,1686. He was for 35 years burgomaster of Magdeburg. In 1650 he invented the air pump, subsequently perfected by Robert Boyle and others. He illustrated the force of atmospheric pressure by fitting together two hollow brass hemispheres, which, after the air within them had been exhausted, could not be pulled apart. He also invented a species of barometer. As an astronomer he was one of the first to express the opinion that the return of comets might be calculated. He published several treatises in natural philosophy, of which Experimenta Nova, ut vocant Magdeburgica, etc. (Amsterdam, 1672), contains his experiments on a vacuum.

Ottokar Lorenz

Ottokar Lorenz, a German historian, born in Iglau, Moravia, in 1832. He graduated at Vienna, and in 1860 became extraordinary, and in 1866 ordinary professor of history at the university. He was also employed in the secret archives of the court and state, but lost this post in 1865 on account of his publications against the Schmerling administration. His principal works are: Deutsche Geschichte im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert (2 vols., Vienna, 1863-'7); Deutschlands Geschichtsquellen im 13. und 14. Jahrhundert, and Papstwahl und Kaiser-thum (1874). With W. Scherer he published Geschichte des Elsass von den altesten Zeiten bis auf die Gegenwart (Berlin, 1871.)

Ottoman Empire

See Turkey.


Ottumwa, a city and the capital of Wapello co., Iowa, on the Des Moines river, here spanned by a bridge, and on the Keokuk and Des Moines, the Central Iowa, the St. Louis, Kansas City, and Northern, and the Burlington and Missouri River railroads, 85 m. S. E. of Des Moines; pop. in 1860, 1,632; in 1870, 5,214. It is surrounded by a fertile country, and has good water power. The trade of the city amounts to about $6,000,000 a year. The principal articles of manufacture are carriages, agricultural implements, woollens, rufflers, sewing machine attachments, cooperage, and furniture. Two firms are engaged in pork packing. There are two national banks, graded public schools, including a high school, a daily and three weekly (one German) newspapers, and nine churches. Ottumwa was incorporated as a city in 1856.