See Constantin Fattlcon.


See Apollo.

Phenol, Or Phenic Acid

See Carbolic Acid.


I. A Greek Philosopher Of Syros

A Greek Philosopher Of Syros, said to have been the teacher of Pythagoras, flourished about 540 B. C. He maintained that there were three principia, Zeus or AEther, Chthon or Earth, and Cronos or Time, and four elements, fire, air, earth, and water; and that all things sprang from these. His distinguishing doctrine was that of metempsychosis, or according to others that of the immortality of the soul. The fragments of Pherecydes were printed by August Wolf in the first part of his Literarisclie Andlekten (Berlin, 1817).

II. A Greek Logographer

A Greek Logographer, about 480 B. C., called Pherecydes of Leros, his birthplace, or of Athens, where he passed most of his life. Fragments of his work on the genealogy of the gods and heroes have been collected.

Phigalia, Or Phialia

Phigalia, Or Phialia, an ancient town of Arcadia, near the borders of Messenia and Elis, on the right bank of the river Neda, of which ruins still exist near the modern village of Pao-litza. Its celebrity is due to the temple, built by Ictinus, on Mt. Cotylion, about 6 m. N. E. of the city, dedicated to Apollo Epicurius, and called by Pausanias the most beautiful in the Peloponnesus except that at Tegea. Its ruins were explored in 1812, and the entire sculptured frieze of the cella, known as the Phi-galian marbles, was brought from it for the British museum in 1814.

Philemon And Baucis

See Baucis.

Philemon Holland

Philemon Holland, an English scholar, born at Chelmsford in 1551, died Feb. 9, 1636. He was educated at Trinity college, Cambridge, became master of the free school at Coventry, and also practised medicine. He was the first English translator of Livy, Suetonius, and Plutarch's "Morals." He also translated Ammi-anus Marcellinus, the "Natural History" of Pliny, the "Cyropaedia" of Xenophon, and Camden's "Britannia."


See Danican.

Philip Astley

Philip Astley, an English equestrian, born at Newcastle-under-Lyne in 1742, died in Paris, Oct. 20, 1814. He served seven years in the light horse, and receiving an honorable discharge supported himself for some time'by exhibitions of horsemanship. He at length acquired sufficient means to build a circus or amphitheatre, which he conducted successfully for many years, though it was several times partially burned and rebuilt. In 1804 he leased it to his son. He also built for his own use 19 theatres in London, Paris, and Dublin, and in connection with Antoine Franconi assisted to establish the "Olympic Circus." He published "Remarks on the Duty and Profession of a Soldier" (1794); "Description and Historical Account of the Places near the Theatre of War in the Low Countries "(1794); "Ast-ley System of Equestrian Education" (1801).

Philip Blojdiaert

Philip Blojdiaert, a Flemish writer, born in Ghent about 1809, died there, Aug. 14, 1871. Possessed of a considerable fortune, he devoted himself to an attempt to revive Flemish literature and the use of his native language. In pursuance of that object he published an edition of the old Flemish poets of the 11th, 12th, 13th, and 14th centuries, with glossaries, notes, and emendations, and afterward published a translation of the Nibelungenlied, in iambics.

His best work, however, is a history of the Belgians.