Philipp Karl Buttmann, a German philologist, born at Frankfort-on-the-Main, Dec. 5, 1764, died in Berlin, June 21, 1829. He finished his education at Gottingen, and in 1789 was appointed assistant librarian to the king of Prussia, but was constrained to turn schoolmaster in order to supply the deficiencies of his salary. In 1808, when the new university was opened in Berlin, he was appointed one of its first professors. He published three Greek grammars, one etymological, which for a long time were universally used in Germany, and two of which have been translated into English. He was also the author of a Lexilogus, especially for Hesiod and Homer (translated into English, 3d ed., London, 1846), and Mythologus, oder gesammelte Abhandlungen uber die Sagen des Alterthums (2 vols., Berlin, 1828-'9; 2d ed., 1865).
Philippe Auguste Jeanron, a French painter, born in Boulogne, May 10,1809. He is a self-taught artist, and became known in Paris in 1830 by his "Little Patriots" and other genre pictures, especially the "Twelve Episodes in a Proletarian Life," executed for Ledru-Rollin, who placed him in 1848 at the head of all the national museums, from which office he retired in 1850, after making great improvements in the Louvre and other institutions in Paris and elsewhere. He afterward became director of the museum of Marseilles. One of his best works is " The Abandoned Port of Ambleteuse," in the Luxembourg. He has written Histoire de l'ecole frangaise (1852), and De l'art de la peinture (1865).
Philippe Chery, a French painter, born in Paris, Feb. 15, 1759, died Feb. 28, 1838. Espousing the cause of the revolution, he took a part in the capture of the Bastile, and was successively a member of the convention, member of the first committee of public safety, mayor of Charonne and Belleville, and chief of police in the department of the Seine. Banished by Bonaparte after the 18th Brumaire, he did not return to France till 1802. His historical paintings gained for him a high reputation.
Philippe de Beaumanoir, a French jurist, born in Picardy, died in 1296. In 1280 he was bailiff of Clermont in Beauvaisis, which town was in the hands of Robert, son of Louis IX. and the head of the Bourbon family. It was according to directions from this prince that he digested and committed to writing the traditional law regulations of the country. This book, La continue de Beauvoi- sis is one of the most valuable monuments of French law during the middle ages. It greatly contributed to reforming the excesses of the feudal system, and enforcing the para- mount power of the monarch.
Champagne, Or Champaigne, Philippe De, a French painter, born in Brussels, May 26, 1602, died in Paris, Aug. 12, 1674. In 1621 he went to Paris, where he became a friend of Nicolas Poussin, superintendent of one of the royal galleries, and a successful portrait and landscape painter. His portraits, especially one of himself, are remarkable for the characteristic excellence of coloring of the Flemish school. Among the finest of his other works are those at the Carmelites, in Paris.