Philippe Egalite. See Orleans.
Philippe Francois Pinel Dumanoir, a French playwright, born in Guadeloupe in July, 1806, died at Pau in November, 1865. He received his education in Paris, and his first play, produced at the Varietes theatre, La semaine des amours, was received with favor. He left nearly 200 plays, most of which have been published. Among his most popular pieces are Don Cesar de Bazan and Les premieres armes de Richelieu. D'Ennery was his collaborator in the former, and Bayard in the latter. From 1836 to 1839 he was manager of the Varietes. His Ecoles des agneaux obtained a gold medal from the minister of state in 1855.
Philippe Henri Lemaire, a French sculptor, born in Valenciennes in 1798. He studied in Paris and Rome, and exhibited in 1827 a statue of a young girl holding a butterfly, which was purchased by the duchess of Berry. Several of his subsequent works were placed in the Tui-leries, the Luxembourg, and Versailles. For his colossal group in front of the Madeleine, representing "Christ pardoning Mary Magdalen," he was made an officer of the legion of honor in 1843, and a member of the academy in 1845. Among his later works are statues of Henry IV. for the hotel de ville, of Hoche at Versailles, of Napoleon at the exchange of Lille, and of Froissart at Valenciennes.
Philippe Le Bas, a French archaeologist, born in Paris, June 18, 1794, died in 1861. At the age of 16 he entered the navy, which he left three years later for the army. He shared in the campaigns of 1813-'14, and then leaving the service was employed for six years in the office of a magistrate. In 1820 he was chosen by Queen Hortense to act as tutor to Prince Louis Napoleon, the future Napoleon III., with whom he remained till Oct. 1, 1827. After holding professorships at Paris successively of history and of the Greek language and literature, he was commissioned by the government in 1842 to undertake a tour of archaeological investigation in Greece and Asia Minor, during which he made many valuable discoveries. His best known works are his Explication des inscriptions grecqueset latines recueillies en Grece (1835-'7), and Voyage archeologique en Grece et en Asie Mineure (1847 et seq., but never completed).
Philippe Nericault Destouches, a French dramatist, born in Tours in 1680, died July 4, 1754. After leading an adventurous life with a company of strolling players, he was entertained at Lausanne by M. de Puisieux, the French envoy to Switzerland. His first comedy, Le cu-rieux impertinent, was performed there with great applause in 1710, and was scarcely less successful when it appeared at Paris. Some other plays of his, among them L'lrresolu, attracted the attention of the regent duke of Orleans, who employed him in several foreign missions. After his return from London in 1723, on the death of the regent, he retired to his country seat near Melun, where he wrote a number of comedies, the best of which are Le philosophe marie and Le glorieux, performed with great success in 1727 and 1732. In his later years he devoted himself to theology, and published several essays against infidelity. His collected works were published in 1750, in 4 vols. 4to.