See Sufis.

Soongaria, Or Dzungaria

See Turkistan.


See Sunna.


See Mantis.


Sophia (Bulg. Triaditza), a town of European Turkey, in Bulgaria, on a small affluent of the Isker, 310 m. W. N. W. of Constantinople; pop. estimated from 18,000 to 30,000, including Bulgarians, Turks, Greeks, and Armenians. It is beautifully situated on the road to Belgrade and surrounded by mountains. The old castle was fortified in 1854. The principal mosque was formerly the magnificent church of St. Sophia. A Greek archbishop and a Catholic bishop reside here. S. of the city are extensive ruins of the ancient Sardica or Ulpia Sardica, an important town of Moesia, in which a council was held in 347. Sophia was founded by Justinian, and conquered by the Bulgarians in 809 and by the Turks in 1382. For a long time it was the capital of Bulgaria.

Sophia Alexeyevna

See Peter I.

Sophia Dorothea

Sophia Dorothea, crown princess of Han-over, born Sept. 15, 1GG6, died Nov. 13, 1720. She was a daughter of Duke George William of Brunswick, of the Luneburg-Celle line; her mother was a French lady. In 1676 she was affianced to a prince of the house of Brunswick, who died in the same year. She was married in 1682 to her cousin, the future George I. of England, and became the mother of George II. and of the queen of Frederick William I. of Prussia. She lived unhappily with her husband, from whom she was divorced in December, 1694, after being suspected of an intrigue with Count Konigsmark. The latter had disappeared in the night of July 1-2 of that year on leaving Sophia's apartment, and it was generally believed that he had been assassinated at her father-in-law's instigation. She was banished for the rest of her life to the castle of Ahlden, near Celle, whence her popular designation as princess of Ahlden.

Sophie Lowe

Sophie Lowe, a German vocalist, born in Oldenburg, March 24, 1815, died in Pesth, Nov. 29, 1866. She studied under Cicemarra in Vienna, and made her first appearance there in opera in 1832. Subsequently she won much applause in Berlin, especially as Susanne in "Figaro;" but she was more successful in Germany and Italy than in Paris. She had a magnificent voice and an imposing style of beauty. She retired from the opera in 1848, on her marriage with the Austrian general Prince Frederick of Liechtenstein.

Sophie Muller

Sophie Muller, a German actress, born in Mannheim in 1803, died at Hietzing, near Vienna, June 20, 1830. She was a daughter of the actor Karl Muller (1783-1837), and appeared on the Carlsruhe stage in her 15th year. In 1821 she went to Munich, and in 1822 was engaged at the court theatre of Vienna, acquiring the reputation of one of the most distinguished tragedians of her day. She also became reader to the empress of Austria. Her biography, by Mailath, was published at Vienna in 1832.


See Philosophy, vol. xiii., p. 437.


See Masinissa.