Tonamotouor Panmotou Islands Low Archipelago

Tonamotouor Panmotou Islands Low Archipelago, a group of small islands in the Pacific ocean, E. of Tahiti (to which they are nominally subject) and S. of the Marquesas, between lat. 14° and 25° S., and lon. 124° and 148° 30' W.; pop. about 10,000. They number between 80 and 90, and are mostly of coral formation. The best known are Chain and Pit-cairn islands (see Pitcairn Island), and the Gambier islands (which are by some considered a separate group; pop. about 2,000), near the S. border of the archipelago, the largest of which is Mangareva. They are all surrounded by coral reefs, are more elevated on their E. than their W. sides, and are covered with a luxuriant vegetation. The inhabitants are a well formed race, are peaceable, and of late years have been clothed in European fashion. The group was discovered in 1797, and in 1834 French missionaries settled in Mangareva.


See Friendly Islands.


See Anam.


See Tunstall.


Tooele, a W. county of Utah, bordering on Nevada, and bounded N. E. by Great Salt lake; area, 8,320 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 2,177. The greater portion is a barren desert. The hilly portions contain some valuable arable and grazing land, and mines of gold, silver, copper, and lead. In the W. part are large fertile valleys and several mining districts. The chief productions in 1870 were 23,483 bushels of wheat, 2,505 of Indian corn, 2,840 of oats, 1,630 of barley, 9,848 of potatoes, 8,497 lbs. of wool, and 973 tons of hay. There were 511 horses, 2,041 cattle, 4,929 sheep, and 121 swine; 1 flour mill, and 2 saw mills. Capital, Tooele.


See Turkistan.

Topham Beauclerk

Topham Beauclerk, one of Dr. Johnson's favorite friends, born in 1739, died March 11, 1780. He was the only son of Lord Sidney Beauclerk, third son of the first duke of St. Albans, the son of Charles II. by Eleanor Gwynn. He studied at Oxford, and his con-versational talents so much charmed Johnson that when the "Literary Club" was founded he was one of the nine original members. When he went to Italy in 1762, Johnson wrote to his friend Baretti warmly commending Beauclerk to his kindness. In 1765 he accompanied Johnson on a visit to Cambridge. He seduced Lady Diana Spencer, wife of Viscount Boling-broke and daughter of the duke of Marlborough, in 1768, and married her immediately after she was divorced.


Tophet, a spot in a fertile valley S. E. of ancient Jerusalem, called the valley (ge) of Hinnom, or of the children of Hinnom, and hence Gehenna in the New Testament, and watered by the brook Kedron. It was the place where the idolatrous Jews passed their children through the lire to Moloch. At a later period it was used as a spot to throw the garbage of the streets, the carcasses of beasts, and the dead bodies of men to whom burial had been refused; and as a fire was kept constantly burning to consume all that was brought, the word was used metaphorically for hell.