Wilhelm Friedrich Eisenlohr, a German physicist, born at Pforzheim, Jan. 1, 1799, died in Carlsruhe, July 9, 1872. He studied at Heidelberg, and in 1819 was appointed teacher of mathematical and physical sciences at the lyceum of Mannheim, where he remained till 1840. From that date till 1865 he was professor in the polytechnic institute at Carlsruhe. His principal work is Lehrbuch der Physik (1836; 10th edition, 1872).
Wilhelm Gottlieb Hankel, a German natural philosopher, born at Ermsleben, May 17, 1814. In 183:3 he entered the university of Halle, where he began the study of theology, but soon devoted himself to science. In 1835 he became assistant in the cabinet of the university, and in 1836 teacher of science in the school of the orphan house. In 1847 he was appointed extraordinary professor in the university of Hallo, and in 1849 ordinary professor at Leipsic. He is especially noted in connection with electricity and magnetism, and has published Elektrische Untersuchungen (parts 1-6, Leipsic, 1856-'65).
Wilhelm Gottlieb Tennemann, a German historian of philosophy, born at Brembach, near Erfurt, Dec. 7, 1761, died in Marburg, Sept. 30, 1819. Abandoning theology for philosophy, he completed his studies at Jena, and was professor there from 1798 to 1804, and subsequently at Marburg. After opposing the Kantian system he became one of its first adherents. His most important work is the Geschichte der Philosophie (11 vols., Leipsic, 1798-1819), in which all systems are regarded from the standpoint of the critical school. An abridgment, Grundriss der Geschichte der Philosophie (Leipsic, 1812; 5th ed., 1828), has been translated into English by Arthur Johnson (Oxford, 1832; revised by J. D. Morell, London, 1852). His other works include System der Platonischen Philosophie (4 vols., Leipsic, 1792-'4), and translations into German from Locke, Hume, and De Gerando.
Wilhelm Jordan, a German poet, born in Insterburg, Prussia, Feb. 8, 1819. He graduated at the university of Konigsberg in 1842, and published his first volume of poetry in the same year. He was a member of the Berlin national assembly in 1848, and was subsequently employed for a short time in naval affairs. His works include Geschichte der Insel Haiti (2 vols., Leipsic, 1846-9), tragedies and comedies, and translations of Sophocles and of Shakespeare's poems and several of his plays. His most famous poetical production is Demi-urgos, ein Mysterium (3 vols., 1852-'4), and he has written an epic, in a peculiar old German metre, entited Sigfridsage, portions of which he has recited in various cities of Germany, as well as of the United States, which country he visited in 1872.
Wilhelm Peter Eduard Simon Ruppell, a German traveller, born in Frankfort, Nov. 20, 1796. He early visited Italy and Egypt, and subsequently explored northern Africa, and especially Abyssinia. He presented his collections to his native town in consideration of an annual pension of 1,000 florins. His works include Fundgruben des Orients (5 vols., Vienna, 1818); Reisen in Nubien, Kordofanund dem peträischen Arabien (Frankfort, 1829); Reise in Abessinien (2 vols., 1838-40); and Vögel Nord- und Ostafrikas (1845).