Charles Robert Darwin, an English naturalist and author, son of Dr. R. W. Darwin, and grandson of Dr. Erasmus Darwin, born in Shrewsbury, Feb. 12, 1809. He received his early education at the Shrewsbury grammar school, and in 1825 went to the university of Edinburgh, where he studied for two years; he then entered Christ's college, Cambridge, where he took his degree in 1831. In the autumn of the same year he volunteered as naturalist to accompany Capt. Fitzroy in the ship Beagle, on his exploring expedition around the world. The Beagle sailed from England Dec. 27, 1831, and returned Oct. 2, 1836. During this long voyage the greater part of the South American coast, the Pacific islands, Australia, New Zealand, and the Mauritius were visited and examined. Before his return Mr. Darwin was elected a fellow of the royal society (1834). In 1839 a narrative of the voyage was published in three volumes, of which the third, containing an account of the discoveries in natural history and geology, was contributed by Mr. Darwin. A second edition of this volume was published separately in 1845. In 1842 he published "The Structure and Distribution of Coral Reefs;" in 1844, "Geological Observations on Volcanic Islands;" and in 1846, "Geological Observations on South America." He also edited "Zoology of the Voyage of the Beagle," published in 1843, and wrote numerous papers on scientific subjects.

In 1851 and 1853 appeared his two volumes entitled "Monograph of the Family Cirripedia," and soon after two other volumes on the fossil species of the same class. In 1853 the royal society awarded the royal medal to him, and in 1859 he received the Wollaston medal from the geological society. In the latter year was published his "Origin of Species by means of Natural Selection." This work has passed through many editions in English, has been translated into a number of foreign languages, including French, German, Dutch, Italian, and Russian, and has been the subject of more reviews, pamphlets, and separate books than any other volume of the age. A catalogue of the literature of Darwinism, entitled Die Darwi-nische Theorie, giving 36 octavo pages of the titles of works and the names of 312 authors, has been published by J. W. Spengel of Berlin. Darwin's work is an attempt to account for the diversities of life on our globe by means of continuous development, without the intervention of special creative fiats at the origin of each species; the extreme conclusion of which is the physiological relationship and community of origin of all living beings. (See Evolution.) Darwin's views have been adopted by some of the most scientific men of the age, while by others they are denounced as unfounded and absurd.

In 1862 he published a work on the "Fertilization of Orchids," and in 1868 "Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication." In 1871 appeared his treatise on "The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex." This work is complementary to that on the origin of species, and is an attempt to prove the descent of man from a lower order of animal life. The author infers that "man is descended from a hairy quadruped, furnished with a tail and pointed ears, probably arboreal in its habits." In 1864 he received the Copley medal from the royal society. He has been elected a member of numerous English and foreign scientific bodies, has been created a knight of the Prussian order of merit, and in 1871 was chosen a corresponding member of the academy of Vienna. Among separate papers by him, some of the more important are: "On the Connection of certain Volcanic Phenomena in South America," "On the Distribution of Erratic Bowlders in South Amerioa," "On the Formation of Mould by the Earthworm," and "On the Geology of the Falkland Islands," all published in the transactions of the geological society.

In the journal of the Linnaean society have appeared the following: "On the Dimorphous and Trimorphous States of Primula," and "On the Movements and Habits of Climbing Plants." The latter has been published in a separate volume. His latest work is "On the Expression of the Emotions in Men and Animals" (1872).