Coquerel. I. Athanase Laurent Charles, a French Protestant clergyman, born in Paris, Aug. 27, 1795, died there, Jan. 10, 1868. He studied at the divinity school of Montauban, and was ordained in 1816. The next year he was invited to become pastor of the Episcopal chapel of St. Paul in the island of Jersey, but was unwilling to subscribe to the thirty-nine articles. After preaching for 12 years to the Walloon congregations at Amsterdam, Leyden, and Utrecht, he was in 1830 invited to Paris by Ouvier, then minister of Protectant worship, and succeeded M. Marron as pastor in the Reformed church; and in 1833 he became a member of the consistory. He was a very successful preacher, and was also much interested in the subjects of education, and from 1831 to 1848 lectured on religion in the school of St. Victor, afterward the Chaptal college. For defending the university against a determined attack, he was rewarded in 1835 with the decoration of the legion of honor. In 1841 he was appointed Protestant chaplain of the college Henri IV. From 1831 to 1833 he edited the Protestant, a religious, political, and literary journal, and from 1834 to 1836, in conjunction with M. Artaud, the Libre Examen. In 1841, with the help of some pastors of like views, he started the Lien, of which he was for a time the principal editor, and which he relinquished in 1844 to his brother, and subsequently to his sons.

He took a prominent part in the discussions called forth by a religious revival which prevailed in England, Switzerland, and the Protestant churches in France, opposing the supporters of the movement, and declaring his opposition to the old Calvinistic theology, the doctrines of predestination, eternal punishment, and expiation, although he maintained against the German rationalism the inspiration of the Scriptures and the doctrine of the fall. He was opposed in the ministry of public worship, as well as by the evangelical school of Protestants, and in 1835 was refused settlement in a chapel at Batignolles which he had been mainly instrumental in founding. His reputation and popularity grew in spite of opposition, and in 1848 and 1849 he was elected a member of the constituent and legislative assemblies, where he acted with the moderate republican party. After the coup d'etat of Dec. 2, 1851, he retired from political life, and devoted himself wholly to religious work. In 1853 he joined in the organization of the Alliance chretienne universelle, which was designed to unite on a common basis the members of the Greek, Latin, and Protestant churches. Since 1852 M. Coquerel had been one of the central council of the Reformed churches, and in 1867 became its president by seniority.

In this position he urged his colleagues to concede something to liberal views, but without success. He wrote 700 or 800 sermons, of which a great number have been printed, forming 8 vols. Besides these his principal works are: Biographiesacree (1837); Histoire sainte et analyse de la Bible (1838 and 1842); a reply to Strauss's "Life of Jesus" (1841; Orthodoxie moderne (1842); Le Christianisme experimentale (1847); Christologie, ou Essaisur la personne et l'oeuvre de Jesus-Christ (1858); Meditations sur des textes choisies de l'Ancien et du Nouveau Testament (1859); Observations pratiques sur la predication (1860); and Pro-jet de discipline pour les Eglises reformees de France (1861). Many of his works have passed through several editions, and been translated into English and other languages. II. Charles Angustin, a French author, brother of the preceding, born in Paris, April 17, 1797, died there, Feb. 1, 1851. He was brought up with his brother by their aunt Helena Maria Williams, an English authoress, at whose house he met Humboldt and other celebrated men.

He studied at the divinity school of Montauban, but in 1815 went to Paris and devoted himself to general science and literature, studying medicine under Broussais, chemistry under Gay-Lussac, mathematics under Ampere and Biot, and astronomy under Arago. In 1821 he published the Annuaire protestant, the earliest work of the kind in France. He was one of the founders of the Revue Britannique (1825), and contributed also to the Revue pro-testante. Among his published works are: Cariteas (1827); Histoire de la litterature anglaise, and Essai sur l'histoire generale du Christianisme (1828); and Histoire des Eglises du desert, his most important work, a record of the sufferings of the French Protestants since the revocation of the edict of Nantes. III. Athanase Josue, son of Athanase Laurent Charles, born in Amsterdam, June 16, 1820. He studied theology at Geneva and Strasburg, was ordained to the ministry at Nimes in 1843, and became assistant pastor in that city. In 1848 he was appointed Protestant chaplain of the college Henri IV., and subsequently of the Chaptal college, a post which he held for 20 years.

On Nov. 15, 1850, although opposed by orthodox leaders, he was appointed by the consistory of Paris an assistant pastor, and was reappointed in spite of increasing opposition in 1853, 1856, 1859, and 1861. Having succeeded to his father's position as editor of the Lien and afterward of the Nouvelle Revue de Theo-logie, he published in the Lien the constitution of the newly formed liberal Protestant union, and in 1863 an appreciative though qualified notice of Kenan's "Life of Jesus." In consequence of this he was at length, Feb. 26, 1864, suspended from the ministry by the consistory of Paris, while the consistory of Anduze voted him an address of sympathy. In 1867 he gave a series of lectures against the doctrinal authority of the Apostles' creed. In 1871 he visited the United States, and lectured during the winter in several cities. He received the decoration of the legion of honor in 1862. Besides many pamphlets, sermons, and articles, he has published Des beaux arts en Italie, au point de vue religieux (1857); Jean Colas, a historical study (1858); Precis de l'histoire de l'Eglise r'e-formee de Paris (1862); Des premieres transformations historiques du Christianisme, Pour-quoi la France n'est elle pas protestante? and Les forcats pour la foi, a sketch of the Protestants condemned to the galleys by Louis XIV. and Louis XV. (1866); La conscience et la foi (1867); and Libres etudes (1868).