Guilford , a N. W. county of North Carolina, drained by Deep river, a branch of the Cape Fear, and by Reedy fork of Haw river; area, 600 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 21,736, of whom 6,080 were colored. The surface is undulating and abundantly timbered; the soil is fertile, well watered, and highly cultivated; and there is a copper mine. It is traversed by the Richmond, Danville, and Piedmont, and the North Carolina railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 132,783 bushels of wheat, 308,347 of Indian corn, 169,847 of oats, 22,521 of Irish and 23,468 of sweet potatoes, 149,490 lbs. of butter, 31,461 of wool, 177,782 of tobacco, and 5,761 tons of hay. There were 2,790 horses, 4,791 milch cows, 6,859 other cattle, and 13,302 sheep; 1 cotton factory, 18 flour mills, 10 tanneries, 8 currying establishments, and 1 manufactory of wagon material. Capital, Greensborough.
Guilford , a town and village of New Haven co., Connecticut, on Long Island sound, and on the Shore Line division of the New York, New Haven, and Hartford railroad, 15 m. E. of New Haven; pop. in 1870, 2,576. The village has an antiquated appearance, but contains a few handsome buildings, the chief of which is a high-school building of stone. In the centre is a public square, on which front the hotel, the principal stores, and four churches. There are few manufactures, the inhabitants being engaged chiefly in farming and maritime pursuits. The harbor is visited by fishing and coasting vessels. About 1 m. S. of the village is the Point, a favorite watering and bathing place; and 3 m. S. W. is the watering place called Sachem's Head. Guilford is the birthplace of Fitz-Greeno Halleck, and here he spent the last years of his life. Here also the regicides Goffe and Whalley were for a time secreted. The first settlement in the town was made by a party of English nonconformists in 1639, and the residence of their leader, the Rev. Henry Whitfield, called "the old stone house," is still standing, near the railroad station.