John Mitchel, an Irish revolutionist, born at Dungiven, county Derry, Nov. 3, 1815. His father was a Unitarian clergyman. He graduated at Trinity college, Dublin, in 1836, studied law, and practised for six years in Newry and Bannbridge, during O'Connell's agitation. In 1845 he was called to Dublin to succeed Thomas Davis in the editorship of the "Nation." His articles were revolutionary, and for one which appeared in 1846, showing how the people could contend with the army, the "Nation" was prosecuted by government. In consequence of differences in policy he quarrelled with his partner Gavin Duffy toward the end of 1847, and soon after founded the "United Irishman," which brought him in direct collision with the government. After an existence of three months the journal was suppressed, and its editor sentenced to expatriation for 14 years. On May 27, 1848, after two weeks' incarceration at Newgate, Mitchel was taken in irons from Dublin to Spike island (Cork harbor), where a government order was received to treat him "asa person of education and a gentleman." Taken thence in a day or two, he passed 10 months in the island of Bermuda, whence he was again deported to Australia, Here he met Smith O'Brien, Meagher, and other political associates.
On July 19, 1854, Mitchel resigned his parole and escaped from the colony, landing in New York on Nov. 29. There he founded the "Citizen," a weekly journal, which he conducted until failing eyesight constrained him to seek a more congenial climate. He removed to Tennessee, where he established the " Southern Citizen," in which he advocated the reopening of the slave trade. He edited the Richmond "Examiner" during the civil war, after which he settled in New York. In July, 1874, he made a visit to Ireland, returning in October. In February, 1875, he was elected to parliament for Tipperary, though disqualified for a seat by his uncancelled sentence, and again went to Ireland. He is the author of " Hugh O'Neill," his own "Jail Journal" (New York, 1854), " The Last Conquest of Ireland (perhaps) " (Dublin, 1861), and a continuation of MacG-eoghegan's " History of Ireland." He has also edited the poems of Thomas Davis and James Clarence Mangan, with biographies.