John Pope, an American soldier, born at Kaskaskia, 111., March 12,1823. He graduated at West Point in 1842, and was made brevet second lieutenant of topographical engineers. In 1842-'4 he served in Florida, in 1845-6 on the survey of the N. E. boundary line, and in 1846-'8 in the war with Mexico, being brevet-ted as first lieutenant and captain for gallant and meritorious conduct at Monterey and Bue-na Vista. In 1849-50 he was employed in topographical surveys and explorations in Minnesota; in 1851-'3 as chief topographical engineer in the department of New Mexico; in 1853-'9 in charge of the survey of the Pacific railroad route near the 32d parallel of latitude, and in experiments to procure water on the Llano Estacado by means of artesian wells; and in 1856 was made captain of topographical engineers for 14 years' continuous services. In 1859-60 he was employed on lighthouse duty. After the outbreak of the civil war he served for a few months as mustering officer at Chicago. He was made brigadier general of volunteers, May 17,1861, and placed in command of the district of North Missouri, and subsequently in other portions of the state.
He was in command of the army of the Mississippi in the movements which terminated in the occupation of New Madrid, March 14, 1862, and in the capture of Island No. 10, April 8, having been made major general of volunteers, March 21. In June he was called to the east, and placed in command of what was for a few months styled the army of Virginia, comprising all the troops in that state except the army of the Potomac, under McOlellan. The forces under his command fought the battles of Cedar Mountain, Aug. 9, and Bristoe Station, Aug. 27; the second battle of Bull Kun, or the battle of Groveton, Aug. 29-30 (see Bull Run); and the skirmish at Chantilly, Sept. 1. He was made brigadier general in the regular army, July 14, 1862. Early in September, at his own request, he was relieved from the command of the army of Virginia which soon became virtually a part of the army of the Potomac, and returned to the command of the department of the Northwest, which he held till January, 1865. He was made brevet major general in the regular army in March, 1865. From January to June, 1865, he was in command of the military division of the Missouri. He was mustered out of the volunteer service in September, 1866, and is now (1875) commander of the department of the Missouri, with his headquarters at Fort Leavenworth. He has published "Explorations from the Red River to the Rio Grande," in the "Pacific Railroad Reports," vol. iii., and an account of " The Campaign in Virginia of July and August, 1862" (1863).