Julius Jakob Yon Haynau, an Austrian soldier, born in Cassel, Oct. 14, 1786, died in Vienna, March 14, 1853. He was an illegitimate son of the elector William I. of Hesse-Cassel, who while stationed with his regiment in the town of Haynau, Prussian Silesia, formed an illicit connection with an apothecary's daughter named Rebekka Ritter, who after a morganatic marriage with him assumed the name of Frau von Lindenheim. Two daughters and four sons resulted from this marriage, who adopted the name of their mother's birthplace. The eldest son, Wilhelm (1779-1856), became known by the unpopular part which he took in the affairs of Hesse-Cassel in 1850; the second, Friedrich, was minister of war of the elector from 1853 to 1855; the third, Ludwig, died in Heidelberg in 1843; and the fourth, the subject of this notice, entered the Austrian service in 1801 as lieutenant, was wounded and captured in the campaign of 1805 near Nord-lingen, was in 1813 and 1814 with the army in Italy, and in 1815 on the upper Rhine. Having been promoted to the rank of major general in 1835, he became military commander of Gratz in 1844, and of Temesvar in 1847. Ra-dotzky appointed him commander of Verona in 1848. In the night of July 24-25 he despatched, upon his own responsibility, a number of soldiers to Somma Campagna, and secured by this measure the victory of Custozza. Afterward he displayed his skill at the siege of Pesehiera. He became notorious for his rigorous measures at Ferrara, Bergamo, and other places; and his ruthless energy in quelling the insurrection of Brescia (March and April, 1849) spread terror among the Italian population.

He subsequently took part in the siege of Venice, and on May 30 he was invited to assume the supreme command of the Austrian army in Hungary. He defeated the Hungarians near Raab and elsewhere, and, protected in the flank and rear by the Russian forces, he rapidly advanced toward Szegedin, crossed the Theiss, and routed the Hungarians at Szoreg (Aug. 5) and near Temesvar (Aug. 9), by which victory he rescued that fortress and virtually terminated the war. The emperor of Austria rewarded him with the governorship of Hungary, and gave him extensive estates. The execution of the thirteen Hungarian commanders at Arad, as well as of Louis Batthyanyi and other patriots at Pesth, took place under his command. His intractable and haughty temper, which on many occasions had brought him into collision with his superiors, at length caused him to be dismissed from the public service, July 6, 1850. He travelled in England, where, for his cruelty toward the Italians and Hungarians, and especially the ill treatment to which female political prisoners were said to have been subjected under his orders, he was assaulted by the draymen of Barclay's brewery in London, on his visit to that establishment in September, 1850, in such a violent manner that he barely escaped with his life.

Hostile demonstrations were also made against him in Brussels and Hanover. His name was more identified with Austrian oppression in Hungary and Italy than that of any other servant of the house of Hapsburg; but Baron Schonhals in his biography of his comrade, which appeared in Gratz in 1853, tried to exonerate him from the charge of intentional cruelty, asserting that he acted only in obedience to the orders of his masters.