New Iiayen, a town, city, and port of entry of New Haven co., Connecticut, capital of the county and the largest city in the state, situated at the head of New Haven bay or harbor, 4 m. from Long Island sound, 33 m. S. S. W. of Hartford, and 65 m. E. N. E. of New York; lat. 41° 18' 23" N., lon. 72° 56' 30" W.; pop. in 1810,5,772; in 1820, 7,147; in 1830, 10,180; in 1840, 12,960; in 1850, 20,345; in 1860, 39,267; in 1870, 50,840, of whom 14,356 were foreigners. The number of families was 10,482; of dwellings, 8,100. The city stands on a plain about 2 m. wide, and is nearly surrounded by hills, from which delightful views may be obtained. Chapel street, the principal thoroughfare, extends in a W. N. W. direction throughout the length of the city. The dwelling houses are generally neatly built and surrounded by gardens, and many of them are almost hidden from view among trees. The number of magnificent elms with which the principal avenues are planted has caused New Haven to be called " the city of elms." They were mostly set out about the close of the 18th century by James Hillhouse, or through his influence and example.

Of several public squares which adorn the city, the principal are Wooster square, an enclosure of 5 acres in the E. part, laid out with remarkable elegance and good taste, and the "Green," 16 acres in extent, and shaded by beautiful elms. Hamilton park, a private ground, adjoining West river and Westvillc, comprises 55 acres. Works supply the city with water from Mill river, which flows through the E. part. Of the public buildings, the first in point of interesl are those connected with Yale college. (See Yale College.) The custom house, on Church street, is of Portland stone, and has apartments for the post office and United States courts. The state house, court house, city hall, hospital, medical college, orphan asylum, and almshouse are the principal other buildings. The New Haven burying ground, containing 18 acres, X. W. of the city, is beautifully laid out. The Evergreen cemetery, on West river, is large and tastefully adorned, and near it is a Catholic burying ground. There are several horse railroads.

New Haven has communication with New York and the principal points in New England by the following railroads: New York, New Haven, and Hartford; New Haven, New London, and Stoning-ton; New Haven, Middletown, and Willimantic; New Haven and Northampton; and New Haven and Derby. It has regular communication with New York by steamboats. - The harbor of New Haven is shallow, and has extensive oyster beds; and the main channel from the junction of Quinepiack and Mill rivers is somewhat circuitous, and not of sufficient depth for large vessels. To meet the channel from the business part of the city two wharves, 3,500 and 1,500 ft. long, have been built, and there are other landings for steamboats. Operations for improving the harbor are in progress. Apart from the coasting trade, the chief commerce is with the West Indies, which the United States commercial reports do not fully exhibit, as much of the business of New Haven merchants is done through New York. There is also a growing commerce with Europe. The value of imports during the year ending June 30, 1874, was $1,066,174; of exports, $592,903; entrances in the foreign trade, 95, tonnage 19,560; clearances, 51, 7,720; vessels belonging in the district, 167, 21,051, viz.: 142 sailing vessels, 13,499; 12 steamers, 4,900; and 13 unrigged craft, 2,652. There are 550 to 650 coastwise entrances and clearances annually.

A capital of about $10,000,000 is invested in manufactures. Clocks are made here very extensively, and are exported to the most distant countries. Carriage making is more largely carried on than in any other part of New England. Iron working, particularly in the lighter and more valuable products of that metal, and the manufacture of India-rubber goods, are prominent industries. Among the other productions are hay cutters, scales, boilers, brass ware, buttons, cars; coach lamps, lace, and trimmings; coffee pots, cutlery, tiles, fish hooks, needles, firearms, harnesses and saddles, ivory, jewelry, organs, melodeons, pianos, paper, pins, saws, corsets, shirts, and spectacles. There are nine banks of deposit, with an aggregate capital of $4,664,000; a trust company, with $100,000 capital; four savings banks, with deposits amounting to $10,070,-693; and two insurance companies, with a joint capital of $300,000. - The city is divided into ten wards, and is governed by a mayor and a board of aldermen of two and a council of three members from each ward. There are efficient fire and police departments. The streets are well paved, drained, and lighted with gas. The principal charitable organizations are the home for aged and destitute women, the home for the friendless, and two orphan asylums.

The valuation of property in 1873 was $56,556,179; revenue, $807,421; expenditures, $726,910 90; city debt, $790,000. The public schools, besides a high, grammar, and primary schools, embrace two training schools for teachers, two truant schools for boys, two ungraded schools for neglected children, and evening schools for both sexes. The number of school houses occupied in 1873 was 24; number of rooms, 155; number of sittings, 8,151; teachers employed, 200; pupils enrolled, 8,807; average attendance, 6,850. The Hopkins grammar school, an incorporated institution established in 1660, is chiefly designed for preparing boys for Yale college. There are also a collegiate and commercial institute, and more than 20 private schools. The city has five daily, one semi-weekly, and nine weekly newspapers, and four monthly and one quarterly periodicals. The number of churches is 51, viz.: Baptist, 5; Congregational, 13; Episcopal, 10; Jewish, 2; Lutheran, 1; Methodist, 11; Roman Catholic, 7; Second Advent, 1; Universalist, 1. - New Haven was settled in 1638 by a company chiefly from London under Theophilus Eaton, their first governor, and the Rev. John Davenport. It was a distinct colony till 1665, when after a protracted struggle it was united with Connecticut under the charter of 1662. It was incorporated as a city in 1784. From 1701 to 1875 New Haven was one of the state capitals. (See Hartfoed, vol. viii., p. 489).

New Haven, from Fort Hill.

New Haven, from Fort Hill.