Horse-Medicines, an a pellation given to such drugs as are prepared exclusively for the use of horses, in particular disorders. As many accidents happen from the ignorance of pretenders, we shall offer a few hints, together with le-cipes, that may be useful in ordinary cases.
I. Purges are frequently rendered necessary in full - grown horses of gross habits, for disorders of the stomach and liver; they ought, however, to be administered with great caution, and their strength proportioned to that of the animal; for, as these medicines frequently continue 22 hours in the body previously to passing off, they are apt to cause gripes, accompa-nied with excessive cold sweats, and to occasion inflammations, which frequently terminate in gangrene and death.
Purges ought to be given early in the morning, upon an empty sto-mach ; three or four hours afterwards, the horse should be fed with scalded bran, when a little hay may be allowed him. All his drink ought to be lukewarm, and a little bran should be mixed with it; but, if he refuse this mesh, pure water may be given. While the dose is operating, the animal should swallow copious draughts of warm water; or, in case of refusal, be indulged with cold drink, in order that the purge may pass off the more speedily.
The following preparations are extracted from those, the character of which is established among sportsmen, for their utility on sudden emergencies.
2. Let 10 drams of Socotrine aloes; half an ounce of myrrh finely pulverized; one dram of saffron, and a similar quantity of fresh jalap, both in powder, be well mixed together, and formed into a solid ball, with the addition of syrup of roses, and a tea-spoonful of recti-fied oil of amber.
3. Infuse two ounces of senna in a point of boiling water, with three drams of salt of tartar, for two hours; when it is to be poured off, and four ounces of Glauber's salt dissolved in it, together with two or three ounces of cream of tartar. - This preparation is reputed to be cooling, easy, and speedy in its operation ; it is preferable in cases of sudden inflammations to any other dose; as it is said to pass into the blood, and also to operate by urine.
r. Socotrine aloes, one ounce ; India rhubarb, two drams ; jalap and cream of tartar, each one dram; pulverized ginger, two scruples ; essential oil of clove's, and aniseed, each twenty drops; and as much syrup of buckthorn as will form the whole into a ball.
2. Socotrine aloes, ten drams ; rhubarb, jalap, and ginger, each two drams ; cream of tartar, three drams ; and a sufficient quantity of syrup of buckthorn, to form the ingredients into a ball.
3. Barbadoes aloes, nine drams ; jalap, Castile soap, and cream of tartar, of each two drams; ground ginger, one dram ; and the same proportion of syrup of buckthorn as above stated.
4. Barbadoes aloes, ten drams ; Castile soap and jalap (in powder), of each half an ounce; cream of tartar and ginger, each two drams ; oil of aniseed, forty drops ; and twenty drops of oil of cloves. These are to be formed into a ball, either with syrup of roses or of buckthorn.
In preparing these balls, it will be requisite to give them an oval form ; but, if they exceed the size of a small hen's egg, they ought to be divided into two doses, and dipped in oil, in order that they may pass the more easily down the horse's throat.
II. Clysters are of considerable service, in relieving the animal from various acute complaints : hence they should be carefully administered, lukewarm. Their composition ought to be extremely simple, so that they may be easily prepared, and given on sudden emergencies.
Clysters are distinguished by various names, such as emollient, laxative, diuretic, etc. of these we shall specify such as may be speedily procured, together with the cases in which they may be resorted to with advantage.
1. Laxative Clyster. Let two or three quarts of thin water-gruel be mixed with eight ounces of Glauber's salt, to which are to be added, six ounces of sweet oil.
2. Emollient Clyster. Take two or three quarts of thin water-gruel, six ounces of coarse sugar, and a similar proportion of salad-oil. The whole is to be well mixed, and in-jected lukewarm. - These two preparations will be fully sufficient to promote a free discharge in sudden obstructions, inflammations, etc. ; they are, in general, fully as efficacious as the more costly compounds.
3. Purging Clyster. Infuse two ounces of senna in boiling water ; after having stood a sufficient time, it is to be strained, and four ounces of syrup of buckthorn, with an equal quantity of salad-oil, are to be carefully incorporated with it.— This will operate more speedily than either of the preceding mixtures, and is therefore preferable, when immediate discharges become necessary.
In case of sudden or apprehended inflammations in the bowels, the following is the most proper :
4. Anodyne Clyster : it consists of one pint of the jelly of starch, or infusion of linseed, and one ounce of liquid laudanum, properly mixed, and immediately administered : if the symptoms increase, from 30 to 40 grains of opium may be substituted for the laudanum, according to their urgency.
5. Nourishing Clyster. Three quarts of thick water-gruel, with two or three table-spoonfuls of ho-ney. - When clysters of this kind become necessary, they ought to be given four, or even five times in the course of a day, as circumstances may require. They are very serviceable in cases of locked jaw, inflammations of the throat, etc.
6. Diuretic Clyster. Take Venice turpentine, two ounces ; Castile soap, one ounce. These are to be well beaten up with the yolk of two eggs, and then diluted with two quarts of warm water. Such a clyster is of great service in the strangury, and all obstru6tions of the urinary passages: if speedily administered, it seldom fails to afford complete relief.
These few clysters are amply sufficient for common exigencies ; and, with a few alterations, which every skilful person is able to adopt, will answer almost every purpose.
1. Digestive Poultice : Take such a quantity of oat-meal or coarse wheat en flour, and beer-grounds, as may be required on the occasion: with these are to be mixed common turpentine and hog's-lard, one ounce of each, previously melted together, and the whole boiled to the consistence of a poultice.
2. Emollient Poultice : Take half a pound of oat-meal, or coarse wheaten flour, and a similar quantity of pulverized linseed. These are to be boiled in milk or water, to the consistence of a cataplasm, when one ounce of sal-ammoniac in powder should be added. - The emoilient poultice may be applied to wounds attended with great heat, inflammation, or swelling : by the addition of fresh butter, lard, or oil, it may be rendered more relaxing, so that it will speedily remove the tension of the skin, while it attenuates the viscid and obstructed juices.
IV. Powders. The chief powder employed in farriery is that of Dia-pente; which consists of equal quantities of gentian, barberries, myrrh, the shavings of ivory, and round birthwort (Aris-tolochia rotunda, L.) - These are to be carefully pulverized, sifted, and weighed, so that the exact proportions be mixed ; after which they are to be kept perfectly secluded from the air. This powder generally forms an ingredient in other medicines, and is of considerable efficacy in the Farcy-(which see) : it is likewise mixed with muscadine wine, sack, or ale, and given as a kind of diet-drink to horses affected with colds, coughs, inflammations in the blood or liver, and various other affec-tions ; as it tends to purify the humours, and to clear the bowels of infectious or corrupt matter. The last class of medicines that deserve attention, are:
V. Diet Drinks, which are generally used in cases of surfeits, or similar disorders; for this purpose, the following recipes may be useful:
1, Lime-water, prepared with shavings of sassafras and liquorice, is well calculated to purify the blood, and may occasionally be given, together with balls consisting of pulverized salt-petre, mixed with honey; so that two or three ounces of nitre be taken in the course of twenty-four hours.
2. Tar-water may in many cases, and especially when the appetite is impaired, be administered with advantage ; but let it be remembered, that all medicines of this nature ought to be continued for a considerable time, in obstinate maladies; for, otherwise, there will be no chance of success.
Lastly, as many diseases of the horse arise from obstructed perspiration, in consequence of his being suffered to stand in the stable, and become cool after fatiguing labour, we can from experience recommend a mesh, consisting of two or three gallons of lukewarm water, in which half a pound of honey is dissolved, with the addition of a few handfuls of barley meal, or malt dust: such a draught ought to be allowed morning and even ing, for several days, whenever it is apprehended that the animal has taken cold, or been otherwise injured by violent exertions.