Jersey City, the second city of New Jersey, and capital of Hudson county, on the west bank of the Hudson River, opposite New York, of which it is, in fact, though in another state, an extension, and with which and Brooklyn it is connected by steam-ferries; a tunnel was commenced in 1874. Its site forms the broadest part of a peninsula bounded on the west by the Hackensack River and Newark Bay; on the south-east it extends along New York Bay. Jersey City is a busy but not a beautiful city. It is an important railway terminus, and is connected with Easton, Pennsylvania, by canal; and at its wharves many ocean-steamers receive and discharge their freight. It is thus the entrepot of a large trade, especially in iron, coal, and agricultural produce. Its own manufactures are on a large scale, and include sugar, flour, iron and steel, zinc, boilers and machinery, locomotives, oils and chemicals, oakum, lumber, silk, watches, and jewellery, lead-pencils, tobacco, pottery, soap, beer, etc. The city has large abattoirs and stock-yards, and grain-elevators notable both for their size and efficiency. The site of Jersey City was formerly called Paulus Hoeck (Hook); the town received its present name and became a municipality in 1838. Pop. (1860) 29,226; (1890) 163,003 ; (1900) 206,433.