This section is from the book "Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction", by Laura I. Baldt. Also available from Amazon: Clothing For Women: Selection, Design, Construction.
In designing collars, the same consideration must be given to the kind of material being used that is given to designs for other parts of the garment. The neck arrangement must serve as a frame for the face; therefore, the style of hair dressing, the contour and poise of the head, affect the design of the collar. Long, slender necks may wear high, close collars, when the hair is drawn close to the head and severity is sought, but if the mode of wearing the hair is a low, soft coiffure, then adopt low, flat collars. The short, fleshy neck looks better usually in a soft low, rather narrow collar, and long open neck line. 12
Fig. 84. - Collar designing; completed patterns standing collars, straight and curved neck line.
To design collars, use cambric or pattern paper. Variations of two neck lines will give the effect of flaring, flat or close-fitting collars. If a curved neck line is used, the collar can be made to lie flat on the figure, or a standing collar be made to flare; but a straight neck line will cause the collar to hug the neck more or less closely and if used with turn-over edges will flare but slightly. To make a curved collar flare a great deal, it may be fitted with curved seams in the back and at the side. The outer edges of the collar may be designed to suit one's fancy (Figs. 84-85).
Net or lace collars for guimpes, etc., may be draped on a cardboard form. Draw the lengthwise straight edge of the net along the lower edge of the board, allow one-quarter-inch seam top and bottom, one inch at ends. Pin to place, turn lower edge up, mark lines for stays with colored thread (Fig. S2C).
Using tissue or pattern paper, design a collar that will lie flat about the neck, having an outer edge shaped like a small sailor collar.
Design a standing collar that flares at the outer edge, and ends three inches below the shoulder seam.
Design a close-fitting collar that has a turned edge, pointed in the back, and sloping towards the front.
The general line of the collar should be repeated in the cuffs, likewise the decoration. If one desires a plain cuff, the lower edge may be kept straight, but if a flare is desired, the lower edge of the cuff must be curved; the line of the outer edge can be made to conform to that of the collar.
Cuffs may be designed on the padded or cardboard sleeve forms. The design may be blocked out on the coardboard, points for seams and opening marked. Cuffs should open in the back or under the arm, and the placket facing be made as invisible as possible. Long sleeves over the hand and close cuffs make hands seem smaller.
In simple tailored, or tub skirts, the lengthwise thread usually runs down the center front. If seams are used, they must fall at right angles to the waist line and conform to the lines of the body. Either straight or bias edges may come to the front of side gores, according as to whether or not a flare is desired toward the front.
To drape a simple circular shirt, pin the material with the lengthwise thread falling straight down the center front of figure, allowing plenty of material above the waist line to provide for the rise in the back; lift and smooth material above the hip line until the desired amount of fulness at the foot is provided. If the extra material above the waist line interferes with the draping, cut some away and slash through the remainder at intervals to make it fit into the figure. Continue lifting the material and pinning into place until the center back is reached; fold off the material and mark the center back line, allowing the seam. Mark the finished line at the bottom and cut off extra material (Fig. 86A).
FIG. 85. - Collar designing. Flat and rolling collar; completed pattern.
Fig. 86. - Skirt draping; A, circular skirt; B, straight full skirt with cascade effect at hips.