This section is from the book "Scientific American Reference Book. A Manual for the Office, Household and Shop", by Albert A. Hopkins, A. Russell Bond. Also available from Amazon: Scientific American Reference Book.
For the first time in the history of the United States the production of coal reached a total of over 300,000,000 short tons, showing an actual output of 301,590,439 tons of 2,000 pounds, valued at $367,032,009. Of this total the output of anthracite coal amounted to 30,940.710 long tons (equivalent to 41,373,595 short tons), which, as compared with the production of 60,242,500 long tons in 1901, was a decrease of 23,301,850 long tons, or about 39 per cent. This decrease, as is well known, was due entirely to the suspension of operations by the strike in the anthracite region from May 10 to October 23, a little over five months. But for the strike the output for the year would probably have been over 05,000,000 long tons. The value at the mines of the anthracite coal in 1902 was $70,173,580, as against $112,504,020 in 1901, a loss of about 32.3 per cent. The average value of the marketed coal sold during the year at the mines was $2.35 per long ton, the value in 1901 having been $2.05.
The output of bituminous coal (which includes semi-anthracite and all semi-bituminous and lignite coals) amounted in 1902 to 260,216,844 short tons, valued at $290,858,483, as against 225,828,1 9 short tons, valued at $230,422,049 in 1901. The increase in the production of bituminous coal was, therefore, 34.388.095 tons in quantity and $54,430,434 in value.
The production of bituminous coal in Pennsylvania in 1902 exceeded that of 1901 by 15,755,874 short tons, but was not sufficient to overcome the great loss in anthracite production. The States in which the more important increases occurred with the corresponding gains are as follows: Illinois, 5,547,751 short tons; Colorado, 2,314,412 short tons; Ohio, 2,444,577 short tons; Indiana, 2,268,371 short tons; Alabama, 1,490,865 short tons; Kentucky, 1,193,176 short tons.
The coke production of the United States in 1902 exceeded that of any year in our history. The production, which includes the output from 1,663 retort or by-product ovens, amounted to 25,401,730 short tons, as compared with 21,795,883 short tons in 1901, and with 20,533,348 short tons in 1900. The increase in 1902 over 1901 amounted to 3,605,847 short tons, or 16.5 per cent. Large as this increase was, it was considerably less than it would have been had the transportation facilities been commensurate with the demand for coke and with the productive capacity of the ovens. The increase in the value of coke was even more noteworthy. The average price per ton at the ovens was the highest recorded in a period of twenty-three years, and the total value reached the high figure of $63,339,167, an increase over 1901 of $18,893,244, or 42.5 per cent. The value of the coal used in the manufacture of coke in 1902 exceeded that of 1901 by $7,932,563, from which it appears that the value of the coke product increased $10,970,-681 over and above the increased value of the coal used in its production. In 1901 the highest price obtained for Connellsville furnace coke was $4.25. In September and October of 1902, while the contract coke was nominally quoted at $3 per ton, consumers were paying from $10 to $12 per ton for prompt delivery, and $15 was reported as paid for this fuel at one time. With the termination of the anthracite strike in the latter part of October prices for coke quickly declined, but in December of 1902 furnace coke for prompt delivery was still commanding $5 and $6 per ton, and contracts for delivery in the first six months of 1903 were made at from $3.75 to $4 per ton.
The aggregate value of all the products obtained from the distillation of coal in gas works or retort ovens in 1902 was $43,869,440. About two-thirds of this amount, or $29,342,881, was represented by the value of the gas produced. The value of the coke produced was $11,267,608, and the tar was worth, at the works, $1,873,966. The total quantity of ammoniacal liquor sold was 49,490,609 gallons, containing 14,683,374 pounds Nh3, and was worth at the works $1,065,300. In addition to this there was an actual production of 11,276,502 pounds of sulphate, which sold for $319,685.
The total production of crude petroleum in the United States in 1902 was 88,766,916 barrels, as against 69,389,194 barrels in 1901, an increase of 19,377,722 barrels, or 27.92 per cent, over the production of 1901 and of 39.52 per cent over that of 1900. The greatest portion of the increase in 1902 came from Texas and California, the gain over 1901 being 13,690,000 barrels, or 311.6 per cent, for Texas, and 5,197,938 barrels, or 59.16 per cent, for California. The increase in Indiana in 1902 over 1901 was 1,723,-810 barrels, or about 30 per cent. Louisiana produced for the first time in 1902, the production being 548,617 barrels. The increase over 1901 in the production of Kansas was 152.598 barrels, or about 85 per cent. Kentucky and Tennessee increased their production in 1902 by 48,072 barrels, or nearly 35.02 per cent. Indian Territory increased 37,000 barrels and Wyoming 853 barrels as compared with 1901. The largest decrease in production in 1902 as compared with 1901 was in West Virginia, where it amounted to 663,781 barrels, or about 4.5 per cent, and Ohio in 62 fields showed a decrease of 633,852 barrels, or nearly 3 per cent. The decrease in Pennsylvania was 561,888 barrels, or about 7 per cent; in Colorado, 63,619 barrels, or about 13.81 per cent. The percentages of production for fields show a remarkable change from 1900 to 1902. In 1900 the percentages were: Appalachian field, 57.05; Lima-Indiana field, 34.20; all other fields, 8.75. In 1902 the respective percentages were: Appalachian field. 36.07; Lima-Indiana field, 26.31; all other fields, about 37.62. The value of crude petroleum produced during 1902 was $71,178,910, or 80.19 cents per barrel, as compared with $66,417,335, or 95.7 per barrel, in 1901 - a decrease of 15.51 cents per barrel, or 16 per cent, in 1902.
The value of the natural gas produced in 1902 increased to $30,867,668, as compared with $27,-067,500 in 1901, with $23,698,674 in 1900, and with $20,074,873 in 1899 - a gain of 13 per cent in 1902 over 1901.