There were 18,226 publications reported to the census authorities, while 3,046 publications failed to report. This would give a remarkable total of 21,272 periodicals, and the aggregate circulation of those reporting was 114,-229,334 per issue, while the aggregate number of copies issued during the census year was 8,168,148,749.

The average capital of those engaged in the printing business is \$12,-574; the average value of their products is \$14,569. These figures compared with those of a previous decade show that in a period of ten years an increased capital is required to produce the same or even a smaller value of products; this is largely caused by an increase in wages and a decrease in working hours. In 1850 a compositor in New York received \$9 per week; ordinary job compositors now receive \$19.50 per week, and operators on machines from \$24 to \$27, depending on the time of day or night they take their shift. In the opinion of many large operators, the number of wage earners has actually increased rather than diminished. The introduction of machine composition has been of decided benefit to the employee, offering a new field for endeavor. There are few unemployed men in the printing trade, as is shown by the fact that when in 1900 the Typographical Union was called upon to supply 150 men for a special job of city printing, only 100 could be obtained, and these with difficulty.

A Graphical Comparison Of Raw And Finished Products Consumed Annually In The Manufacture Of Books And Periodicals In The United States.

When figures get beyond a certain point they lose their concrete value, and it is necessary to resort to some other means if we wish to make comparisons involving figures that run up into millions and billions. Therefore, we adopt the method of representing these figures by comparisons of bulk and form. The basis for the comparison which we have worked out is the Twelfth Census of the United States, viz: that of 1900.

Diagram Showing Classification Of Papers.

A classified list of periodicals is given below, showing how the list is divided :

Period of issue:

 Daily 2,220 Tri-weekly 62 Semi-weekly 037 Weekly 12,979 Monthly 1,817 Quarterly 237 All other classes 268 Total 18,220
 Character of publication: News, politics, and family reading ...................... 14,867 Religion............................................ 952 Agriculture, horticulture, dairying, and stock-raising....................... 307 Commerce, finance, insurance, railroads, and trade........ 710 General literature, including magazines........................ 239 Medicine and surgery.................... 111 Law.......................... 02 Science and mechanics............... 66 Fraternal organizations............. 200 Education and history.............. 259 Society, art, music and fashion....... 88 Miscellaneous.................. 365

Proportion Which Advertising, Subscription And Sales, And Book And Job Printing Form Of The Total Value Of All Products.

Out of the 18,226 publications, 2,220 are dailies, with a circulation of 15,102,156; 62 are tri-weekly, with a circulation of 228,610; 637 are semi-weekly, with a circulation of 2,832,-868; 12,979 papers are issued weekly, with a circulation of 39,852.052. There are 1,817 monthly publications, whose circulation is 39,519,897. The quarterly publications are mostly devoted to special subjects, and only number 237, but their circulation is very respectable, as they issue 11,217-422 per number. Semi-monthly, semiannual and yearly publications number 208, and have a circulation of 5,-541,329. Out of 18,226 publications, 17,194 were printed in English.

Copyright, 1903, by Munn & Co.

Comparison Showing Number Of Publications, Value Of Product And Labor.

In 1900, cities of 201,000 inhabitants and over contained 79 per cent of the separate job-printing establishments of the country, and 97.7 per cent of the total job product emanated from them.

Ayer's Newspaper Directory for 1904 gives later figures, viz.: Daily, 2,457; tri-weekly, 56; semi-weekly, 634; weekly, 16,935; fortnightly, 65; semi-monthly, 285; monthly. 2,698; bimonthly, 53; quarterly, 192; miscellaneous, 10. Total, 23,385.