This section is from the book "An Illustrated Flora Of The Northern United States, Canada And The British Possessions Vol2", by Nathaniel Lord Britton, Addison Brown. Also available from Amazon: An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. 3 Volume Set..
Viola fimbriatula J. E. Smith in Rees' Cyclop. 37: no. 16.
1817. Viola ovata Nutt. Gen. 1: 148. 1818. V. sagittata var. ovata T. & G. Fl. N. A. 1: 133. 1838.
Rootstock becoming long and stout, usually erect; the blades of the earliest leaves ovate, obtuse, those of the later oblong-ovate, acute or somewhat obtuse, finely pubescent especially beneath, obscurely crenulate toward the apex, the lobes of the subcordate or truncate base often sharply toothed, incised, or auriculate; scapes usually much exceeding the leaves; sepals lanceolate, acuminate, with auricles somewhat spreading and ciliate; corolla violet-purple; capsules green, ovoid, 3"-5" long; seeds brown; cleistogamous flowers on erect peduncles.
Dry fields and hillsides. Nova Scotia to Wisconsin, south to the mountains of northern Georgia. Viola conjugens Greene is apparently a hybrid between this species and V. sagittata. April-May. Fringed or rattle-snake violet.
Viola sagittata Ait. Hort. Kew. 3: 287. 1789.
Usually glabrous, but the leaves often ciliate or finely pubescent throughout; petioles commonly longer than the blades; these lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate, becoming 1 1/2'-4' long, cordate to truncate, obtuse or acute, distantly and obscurely toothed above the middle, hastately or sagittately toothed or cleft at the base; the earliest leaves and those produced in late summer often deltoid-ovate, obtuse, merely crenate at the base; flowers on peduncles as long as the leaves, or somewhat longer; corolla violet-purple; sepals narrowly lanceolate, acute, glabrous; capsules 4"-7" long, containing 50-70 brown seeds.
Moist banks and wet meadows, Massachusetts to Minnesota, south to Georgia and Louisiana. The pubescent form, frequently found in the East, is the prevalent form in the region of the Great Lakes. Early blue, spade-leaf or sand-violet. April-May.
V. sagittata var. emarginata Nutt. Gen. 1: 147. 1818. V. emarginata Le Conte, Ann. Lyc. N.Y. 2: 142. 1826.
Glabrous, succulent, frequently cespitose; root-stock stout; petioles generally much longer than the blades; blades at petaliferous flowering narrowly ovate or triangular, subcordate, 3/4'-1 1/2' long; those of later leaves broadly ovate or deltoid, 1 1/2'-3 1/4 wide when mature, often no longer than broad, the base subcordate or truncate, often decurrent, obscurely crenate-serrate above the middle, coarsely toothed or incised below; corolla violet-blue, the petals sometimes emarginate; cleistogamous capsules ellipsoid, 4"-7" long, on erect peduncles somewhat shorter than the leaves; seeds brown.
Dry woods and hillsides, southern New York, south to northern Georgia and west to Oklahoma. Var. acutiloba Brainerd has the blades of mature leaves 5-cleft or 5-parted, the middle lobe long lanceolate, the lateral much shorter and narrower, the basal lunate with the outer margin coarsely sinuate-toothed. Staten Island, N. Y., and District of Columbia. April-May.