Any substances which counteract the effects of poisons. When poison has been swallowed, first and instantly dilute the poison with large draughts of warm water, either clear, or, if the particular poison is known, containing the proper antidote. Exite vomiting. Protect as much as possible the lining of the stomach from contact with the poison by large and frequent doses of sweet oil, mucilage of gum arable, flaxseed tea, milk, melted lard or butter. A general antidote, where the name of the poison is unknown, is a mixture of carbonate of magnesia, powdered charcoal, and hydrated sesquioxide of iron, equal parts in water. Mineral acid poisons are counteracted by powdered chalk, whiting, magnesia, or lime scraped from a wall and stirred in water. Also by soap suds, sweet milk, soda or saleratus, all in very small doses at first. In case of oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid, water must not be used too freely at first, as heat and gas are dangerously produced in the stomach by their meeting (see acid and alkali). Lye, caustic potash, ammonia and other alkaline poisons are counteracted by vinegar, lemon juice, or acidulated water, to be followed immediately with sweet oil, mucilage and an emetic.

Arsenic, rat poisons, poisonous colorings, pans green, etc., give five or six whites of eggs beaten in a cup of water, or flour and water, flaxseed tea or magnesia, and administer an emetic. After the vomiting, give hydrated sesquioxide of iron in tablespoon doses every fifteen minutes. This is the best known antidote for arsenic. Corrosive sublimate or bed-bug poison, treatment the same as for arsenic. Phosphorus, cochroach paste, matches, give large quantities of warm water containing calcined magnesia, chalk or whiting. Verdigris, give sugar, milk and whites of eggs in large quantities, then strong tea, but no acids of any kind. Laudanum, opium, morphine, give an emetic, strong coffee, brandy, whisky, and keep the patient awake by any means. Poisonous fungi, toadstools, false mushrooms, give emetics and castor oil or olive oil, then vinegar, lemon juice or cider, and administer ether and antispasmodic remedies. Tannin is an antidote, and an infusion of gall nuts or oak bark is effective.