This section is from the book "The Professed Cook: Or, The Modern Art Of Cookery, Pastry, And Confectionary", by B. Clermont. Also available from Amazon: The professed cook.
It is boiled a little more, and the thread extends further before it breaks, and is proved after the same manner.
It is still boiled a little more, until it does not break by extending the fingers half as much as is possible to do. One pound of Sugar is sufficient to make a Trial of all the different Degrees.
Cuissons au grand Perle, a la petite, & la grande Queue de Cochon, au souffle, & a la petite Plume, Third, fourth, Fish, sixth, seventh, and eighth Degrees of refining. Perle, from Pearl, large and small; small and large Pigs Tails; puffed or blown; and Plume, or Feather.
The Grand Perle is boiled a little longer than the small, and is known to be to the Degree wanted, by not breaking by all the extension that can be made with the fingers; and also when it forms into small pearls in the boiling, round and raised, by which I presume it takes its name. In boiling this last a little longer, it comes to the Fish Degree, or Petit Queue de Cochon: It is known by taking up some of the Sugar with a Skimmer, and dropping it into the boiling Sugar again: If it forms a slanting (break on the fur-face, this is called the little Pig's Tail. - The sixth Degree is La grande Queue de Cochon; which being still more boiled, and tried in the same manner as the last, forms a larger Pig's Tail. After a little more boiling comes the seventh Degree, Au souffle, Blown; which is known by dipping a Skimmer into it, giving it a shake, and blowing through it directly; if it blows to small sparks of Sugar, or in small bladders, it is to the proposed qualification. The eighth comes with a little more boiling, La petite Plume, small Feathers; which is known by the same trial; the difference only , that the sparks or bladders are to be larger, and of a stronger substance.
It is known by the former method, being still more boiled, and the proof stronger; but the surest is by dipping a Skimmer into it, and giving it a strong turnover shake of the hand; if it turns to large sparks, which clog together in the rising, it is done to this Degree.
It is done by a little more boiling, and proved by dipping two fingers in cold Water, and directly into the Sugar, and into cold Water again; what sticks to your fingers, ought to roll up like a bit of Paste, hard enough to form into small bullets, and to remain pretty supple when cold.
Eleventh Degree, Le gros Boulet, large Bullet. This is proved by the last method, which, by a little more boiling makes the Bullet harder when cold, as it ought to be.
By continuing to boil the Sugar, it is known by the same method as in the two last; the only difference is, that the Bullet which is made of this, ought to crumble between the fingers, being first dipped in cold Water.
This refining is little different from the last; to make it pretty clear, squeeze some Lemon into it while it is boiling. There is also a deep-coloured Caramel, of which the uses shall be mentioned; it is made with only a little Water with the Sugur, boiling it without stirring to raise any scum, until it is to the colour required; take it off the Fire for present use.. To all the different degrees of preparation, if misled at first, add a little Water to refresh the Sugar, and boil it over again, until it comes to the qualification required.