This section is from "The Horticulturist, And Journal Of Rural Art And Rural Taste", by P. Barry, A. J. Downing, J. Jay Smith, Peter B. Mead, F. W. Woodward, Henry T. Williams. Also available from Amazon: Horticulturist and Journal of Rural Art and Rural Taste.
If any facta seem to oppose this doctrine, they may be regarded either as exceptions' to the general law, or as the results of locality and cultivation.
"The physiological principle of the Vegetable kingdom udder which this doctrine obtains is, that the bud contains the embryo tree, and that the strong or precocious stock constrains it to elaborate more material into wood and foliage, and thus promotes both growth and fruitfulness.
"Common sense as well as common observation, confirms this statement. Witness the pear, which we have known to fruit the fourth year from seed, when grafted on the quince. We know a seedling from the Seckel pear, grafted on the Bartlett, which bore the present season, and is only four years from the Seed. The Catharine Gardette, raised by Dr. Brinkle, was brought into bearing by grafting on the quince in ore years, while the original seedlings, in all these instances, are only three to five feet in height, and will require several additional years to bring them into bearing. Is it reasonable to suppose that a seedling pear, which, in two years, in a given location, attains the height of one or two feet, with but few branches, will fruit as early as a scion from the same seedling when grafted on a strong tree, which elaborates and assimilates through its abundant branches and luxuriant foliage, ten times the amount of all the elements constituting growth and maturity?"
He continues: -
"In reliance upon natural fertilization, I would Still encourage the continual planting of the seeds of choice varieties of all kinds of fruit, in the belief that new and valuable varieties may thus be obtained. By these various processes, we shall, have continual .Accessions to our collections of such choice fruits as the Beuire Clairgeau, Beurre d'Anjou, and Doyenne Boussock pears. Let nothing discourage you in this most hopeful department of pomology. Go on, persevere*..
"These are triumphs worthy of the highest ambition, conquests which leave no wound on the heart of memory, no stain on the wing of time. He who only adds one really valuable > variety to our list of fruits, is a public benefactor. I had. rather be the man Who planted that umbrageous tree, from whose bending branches future generations shall pluck the luscious fruit, when I am sleeping beneath the clods of the valley, than he who has conquered armies. I would prefer the honor of introducing the Baldwin Apple, the Seckel Pear, Hovey's Seedling Strawberry - ay, or the Black Tartarian Cherry, from the Crimea, to the proudest victory which has been won upon that blood-stained soil".
We anticipated from the speaker, that he would give in this speech the results of his latest experience in keeping fruit, and the construction of fruit-rooms, and are not disappointed. He says: -
"The proper construction and management of these is, therefore, commanding the attention of nomologists, both in this country and in Europe. Their success is found to depend on a perfect control of the temperature, moisture, and light. After having built and managed four fruit-rooms, upon different plans, I am of opinion that a proper equilibrium of temperature and moisture cannot ordinarily be obtained without the use of ice. The preservation . of the apple is less difficult than that of most other fruits, and is tolerably well understood by our farmers. Still, how few specimens, even of this fruit, are brought to our spring market in a fresh and perfect condition! The art of keeping the pear, and fruits of delicate texture, is much more difficult; and it is to these I particularly refer.
"Having heard of the great success of Mr. Schooley, of Cincinnati, Ohio, by his celebrated discovery for the preservation of meats, I opened a correspondence with him with respect to the application of the same process to the preservation of fruits. He subsequently visited me at Boston and advised as to the construction of a fruit-room upon his principle. This I have found, during the last winter and the present summer, to operate in accordance with his statement, as illustrated by Professor Locke, in his 'Monograph upon the Preservation of Organic Substances.' By his plan, the temperature and moisture of the fruit-room, and consequently the ripening of the fruit, may be perfectly controlled. One gentleman informs me that he kept strawberries, in a fruit-room constructed on this plan, from June 1 to the 20th, in perfect condition for the table; and he entertains no doubt of its complete success in the preservation Of apples and pears indefinitely. Mr. Schooley writes me that, in the month of June, he received several barrels of Bellnower apples, which had been kepi for eight months, that were sold in that market at two dollars and twenty-five cents per bushel. The remainder oat of eight hundred bushels was sold, at home, at three dollars per bushel.
These apples were purchased, at random, from the strolling wagons passing through the Streets of Day toil, and were more or less bruised by careless picking and transportation. My own experience corresponds with these statements.
"The construction of these rooms is simple. All that is required is walls made of nonconducting materials, with an apartment for the ice above the fait-room, and with Mr. Schooley'a descending flues for the cold air, so as to preserve ah equable temperature and moisture, and to hold the ripening process in suspense. The air, by passing over the ice, is deprived of its moisture, and, being cold and specifically heavier than the surrounding atmosphere, falls through his descending flues, and, by a ventilator, escapes on one side of the room, thus creating a temperature not only cool, but dry. This principle, I am informed by a distinguished member of the medical faculty, may be applied to the construction of hospitals with great advantage, so that the air may be kept at a uniform temperature and degree of humidity. For a more particular account of this process, I refer you to Professor Locke's Monograph, and to the inventor's letter, herewith submitted.
"In these remarks, our object has been to provide against the maturing of fruits until the season when they are wanted tot use. Care should, however, be exercised, especially with the pear, and more delicate fruits, not to reduce the temperature much below 45° of Fahrenheit, lest the vital principle of the fruit be destroyed, and the flavor lost".
Colonel Wilder differs somewhat from Jeffreys, in our last number, regarding the value of the pear as a dwarf, and, as we desire nothing but the truth, we give his views on the subject:- - .
"Pears upon the quince should be planted in a luxuriant, deep soil, and be abundantly supplied with nutriment and good cultivation. They should always be planted deep enough to cover the place where they were grafted, so. that the point of junction may be three or four inches below the surface. The pear will then frequently form roots independently of the quince, and thus we combine in the tree both early fruiting from the quince, and the strength and longevity of the pear stock. For instance, of trees of the same variety, standing side by side in my own grounds for ten years, and enjoying the same treatment, those on the quince stock have attained a larger size, and have borne, for seven years, abundant crops, while those upon the pear stock have scarcely yielded a fruit. We have, also, others on the quince, which; twenty-five years since, were obtained at the nursery of Mr. Parmenter, where now is the most populous part of the city of Brooklyn, N. Y., and which have borne I good crops for more than twenty years, and are still productive and healthy.
"That' the introduction and cultivation of the pear upon the quince has been a great blessing, I entertain no doubt, especially in gardens, .and in the suburbs of large towns and cities. And as to its adaptation to the orchard, 1 see no reason why it should not succeed well, if the soil, selection and cultivation be appropriate. A gentleman in the eastern part of Massachusetts planted, in the years 1848 and 1849, as many dwarf pear-trees as he could set on an acre of land at the distance of eight by twelve feet, and between these rows he planted quince bushes, in the fifth year from planting, he gathered one hundred and twenty bushels of pears, and sixty bushels of quinces. • Of the former, he sold seventy bushels at five to six dollars per bushel, and he now informs me that he has lost only three per cent, of the original trees, and that the remainder are in healthful condition".
An important suggestion is contained in the following paragraph. We hope to live long enough to see it thoroughly carried out:-
"I anticipate that, at no remote period, we shall feel the necessity of a National Pomolo-gical Institute, with an Experimental Garden, where all the varieties true to name may be obtained, where all sorts may be thoroughly tested, and distributed to the members of the Society, and thus relieve the pioneers in American pomology from large expenditures and much personal inconvenience".
In conclusion, the author breaks out eloquently, thus,: -
"It is estimated that, in the nurseries of Monroe County, there are thirty millions of tress, and that,-in. the whole of the nurseries of Western New York, commencing at Onondaga County, there cannot be less than fifty millions, besides the great number which has already been sent out to adorn your valleys, and crown your hill-tops. These are the precious fruits which have been gathered in this locality. Add to them the progress of this science in various other Motions of our Union, and what a charming prospect does our fair land present!
"Fellow Associates: In view of this auspicious progress, let us compare our experience and results; let us stimulate each other to still greater exertions for the advancement of oar common cause. Let us endeavor to disseminate the knowledge of the few among the many, that we may improve the public taste, add to the wealth of our republic, and confer on our countrymen the blessings of our favorite art. Thus shall we make other men happy, and keep them so - render our own homes the abodes of comfort and contentment, and hasten the time when the garden shall feel no blight, the fruitful fold laugh with abundance, and rivers of gladness water the earth."