This section is from the book "The Fruit Manual: Containing The Descriptions And Synonyms Of The Fruits And Fruit Trees Of Great Britain", by Robert Hogg. Also available from Amazon: The Fruit Manual.
Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and three-quarters high; roundish, distinctly libbed on the sides, and narrowing towards the eye, where it terminates in more or less prominent ridges. Skin, yellow, on the shaded side, and covered with large patches of pale brown russet, which extend all over the base, and sprinkled with green and russety dots; but of a beautiful bright red, which is streaked with deeper red, and strewed with patches and dots of russet, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, with long flat segments, which are reflexed at the tips and set in an irregular ribbed basin. Stamens, median; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, rich, and highly aromatic. Cells, obovate; axile.
Fruit, large; ovate, angular on the sides, and ribbed round the eye, somewhat like a Quoining. Skin, dull green on the shaded side, and brownish red streaked with brighter red on the side next the sun; some parts of the surface marked with thin russet. Eve, large and closed, set in a narrow and angular basin. Stamens, marginal or median; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, rich, and aromatic. Cells, roundish obovate; axile or abaxile.
This is one of our best dessert apples, remarkable for its rich and aromatic flavour; it is in use from December to May. The tree is-hardy and a free grower, attaining the middle size, but not an abundant bearer; it produces its fruit at the extremities of the last year's wood, and great care should, therefore, be taken to preserve the bearing shoots. It succeeds well grafted on the paradise stock, and grown as an espalier or an open dwarf.
This valuable apple was brought into notice by Sir Christopher Hawkins, who sent it to the London Horticultural Society in 1813. It was discovered about the beginning of the present century, growing in a cottager's garden near Truro.
The name July-flower is very often applied to this and some other varieties of apples, and also to flowers; but it is only a corruption of the more correct name, Gilliflower, which is derived from the French Girofle, signifying a clove, and hence the flower, which has the scent of that spice, is called Giroflier, which has been transformed to Gilliflower. In Chaucer's "Romaunt of the Rose" he writes it Gylofre:
"There was eke wexyng many a spice, As Clowe Gylofre and liquorice."
Turner writes it Gelower and Gelyfloure. The proper name, therefore, is Gilliflower, and not July-flower.
Fruit, below medium size, nearly two inches wide, and two and a quarter high; roundish, inclining to cylindrical, distinctly angular. Skin, smooth, almost entirely covered with crimson, which has broad broken streaks of a darker colour dotted all over with russet dots; on the shaded side it is of a paler colour, and is streaked with crimson and yellow. Eye, closed, with erect convergent segments, set in a pretty deep and close basin, which is angular and plaited. Stamens, marginal; tube, conical,, sometimes so deep as to extend to the core. Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, very tender and juicy, sweet, with a pleasant flavour and agreeable aroma. Cells,, roundish; axile.
A very good tender-fleshed dessert apple; in use up to November.
This was sent me from Cornwall by Mr. Vivian, of Hayle, under the name of Mother Apple, but as there are so many apples which are known by this name it it-necessary to give them some specific distinction, and this I have named the Cornish Mother.