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Historic Ornament - Treatise On Decorative Art And Architectural Ornament | by James Ward



This work is a continuation of the former volume on the subject of Historic Ornament, and treats of the historical development of ornament and decoration as illustrated in furniture, pottery, enamels, ivories, metal work,including goldsmiths', silversmiths', and jewellers' work, textile fabrics, mosaic, glass, and book decoration.

TitleHistoric Ornament - Treatise On Decorative Art And Architectural Ornament
AuthorJames Ward
PublisherChapman And Hall, Limited
Year1897
Copyright1897, Chapman And Hall, Limited
AmazonHistoric Ornament - Treatise On Decorative Art And Architectural Ornament

Pottery; Enamels; Ivories; Metal - Work; Furniture; Textile Fabrics; Mosaics; Glass; And Book Decoration

Reduced Fac-simile of a border, from an edition of "Herodotus" printed at Venice in the year 1470.

Historic Ornament Treatise On Decorative Art And A HistoricOrnament 1

Preface

This work is a continuation of the former volume on the subject of Historic Ornament, and treats of the historical development of ornament and decoration as illustrated in furniture, pottery, enamels, ivories, metal work, including goldsmiths', silversmiths', and jewellers' work, textile fabrics, mosaic, glass, and book decoration.

Though each volume may be considered complete in itself as far as it has been possible to consider the subjects therein treated in the dimensions of this work, at the same time the student is respectfully advised to read both volumes, as a few subjects which are necessarily only slightly noticed in the former treatise, particularly those belonging to the Minor Arts, are more fully treated in the present work.

J. Ward.

-Chapter I. Pottery
In a former volume of this work, under the respective headings, the Pottery of the Prehistoric ages, and of the oldest nations, as Egypt, Assyria, and Phoenicia, has been noticed. The pottery of primi...
-Pottery. Part 2
The Levantine island of Samos has been celebrated from the earliest times for its pottery. It has been mentioned by Homer and Herodotus as unparalleled, for its size, in the wealth and artistic qualit...
-Pottery. Part 3
Fig. 5. Samian Bowl. Fig. 6. Gr*˜co-Roman Vase. The same author translates a document he found in the British Museum, which gives a description of the whole of the making and preparing of the golden...
-Maiolica
Before the advent of Maiolica ware in Italy a similar kind of pottery was made in Spain, which had the stanniferous or opaque tin glaze and the golden lustre that belonged to the best examples of Ital...
-Italian Maiolica
About the year 1450 the Sforzi, the Lords of Pesaro, established at the latter place Maiolica factories, and a decree, dated 1st of April, 1486, was published, granting certain privileges to the ceram...
-Italian Maiolica. Part 2
Fig. 14. Virgin and Child. School of Delia Robbia. (S. K. M). Fig. 15. Early Pesaro Dish. (S. K. M). Fig. 16. Pitcher; Caffaggiolo Maiolica, (S. K. M). Fig. 17. Sgraffitto Maiolica. (S. K. M). Fig...
-Italian Maiolica. Part 3
Fig. 19. Plateau or Tazza; Caffaggiolo Ware. Fig. 20. Pesaro Portrait Dish (about 1500). (S. K. M). Fig. 21. Drug Pot; Siena. (S. K. M). Fig. 22. Siena Plate. (S. K. M). Fig. 23. Siena Plate. (S. ...
-Persian, Damascus, And Rhodian Wares
The artistic pottery and tiles of Persia, though forming a large variety, may nearly all be brought under the designation of siliceous or glass-glazed wares, the tin glaze being only met with occasion...
-French Pottery
The art of the potter flourished in Gaul before the time of the Romans, but this early pottery was of a coarse kind, used mostly for domestic purposes, and of an unglazed variety (Poteries mates). The...
-Palissy Ware
Bernard Palissy was one of the most remarkable men who practised the art of the potter in France or in any other country. He was born about the year 1510, but his birthplace is not exactly known. He w...
-Rouen Ware
A much better class of pottery both in manufacture and design is the famous Rouen ware, made in the town of that name in Normandy. In the year 1644 Edme Poterat obtained a licence to make and sell fay...
-French Porcelain
The desire to imitate the porcelain ware of China led to the discovery of the soft paste (pÆ'te tendre). The names porcelaine de France and SÅ vres porcelain have also been given to it. As previou...
-German Pottery
German stoneware was manufactured at an early date, and in the countries bordering upon the Rhine the industry must have been in an active state in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, judging from ...
-English Pottery
Ancient British pottery has been found in the barrows and burial mounds in the form of incense cups, drinking and food vessels, and cinerary urns. These have all been made of clays that were found usu...
-English Pottery. Continued
Fig. 68. Romano-British Urn, with Slip Decoration. (B. M). Fig. 69. Encaustic Tile, from Monmouth Priory. (B. M). Fig. 70. Tyg of Wrotham Ware. Fig. 71. Dish of Slip Ware; by Thomas Toft. (S. K. M)...
-English Porcelain
Porcelain was first made in England about the year 1745. The best period of the manufacture dates from 1750 to 1780, though some of the oldest factories have survived to the present day. English porce...
-Chinese Porcelain
The manufacture of porcelain in China, according to their own accounts, dates for more than two hundred years before the Christian era. The composition of Chinese porcelain is of two elements: one, th...
-Chapter II. Enamels
Enamelling is the art of applying a vitreous material to an object, as decoration, to the surface of which it is made to adhere by heat. Metals are the usual foundations to which enamels are applied, ...
-Enamels. Part 2
This altar was dismantled and divided amongst the Crusaders at the taking of Constantinople in 1204. The next important works in date are the gold altar of Ambrose at Milan, made by Volvinius in 825; ...
-Enamels. Part 3
Fig. 94. Altar Tray and Chalice, Cloisonn*š Enamel; Sixth Century (?). Fig. 95. Byzantine Reliquary, Cloisonn6 Enamel; Tenth Century. Fig. 96. Crown of Charlemagne. Fig. 97. Champlev*š Enamel of Ge...
-Enamels. Part 4
Enamelled disks, fibulae, finger rings, and other articles of personal adornment have been found in England of the Anglo-Saxon period, mostly having a bronze foundation for the enamel. Fig. 99. ChÆ's...
-Enamels. Part 5
The other parts of the design were left without shadow, or sometimes the highest points in the hair or draperies would have little fine touches of gold pencillings, in order to bring out some kind of ...
-Enamels. Part 6
Jean Courtois Jean Courtois (circa 1560) was a prolific enameller. His work is characterized by a profusion of arabesque orna-ment of the period of Henry II. His flesh tints and other parts of his co...
-Enamels Of The Countries Of The East
China, India, and Persia have been famed from early times for their exquisite productions in enamels. Japan also has made, and continues to make, enamels of great beauty. The older or Cloisonn*š metho...
-Chapter III. Ivory Carvings
In the former part of this work we have noticed the ivory carvings of the ancient world, and it is proposed in the following pages to give an outline of ivory carvings of the Middle Ages and of the co...
-Ivory Carvings. Part 2
There is a large plaque of ivory in the British Museum which measures 16 inches by nearly 6 inches in width the largest known - on which is carved the figure of an archangel holding in one hand a glob...
-Ivory Carvings. Part 3
Another Flemish artist in ivory was Francis von Bossuit, who spent a great part of his life in Rome, and whose figure carvings are of great value. Alessandro Algardi was an Italian artist of the seven...
-Ivory Carvings. Part 4
The Chinese Ivory Fans The Chinese Ivory Fans of pierced work are beautiful and as delicate as lace-work. Examples of these are very common. The Pen-Cases The Pen-Cases called pitongs are beautiful...
-Chapter IV. Metal Work. Gold, Silver, Bronze, Pewter, And Iron
The early Egyptian, Assyrian, Phoenician, and Primitive Grecian metal work has been noticed under the historic sketch of the art of these nations in the former volume. We read in the Bible of the gre...
-Metal Work. Gold, Silver, Bronze, Pewter, And Iron. Part 2
The metal work of the Byzantine period - from the fourth to the eleventh century - is characterized by a subservience of the design to the material employed; in other words, what was lacking in good d...
-Metal Work. Gold, Silver, Bronze, Pewter, And Iron. Part 3
The stones in these crowns, like those in the Charlemagne and Lombard crowns, and other jewellery of the Middle Ages, were tallow-cut, that is, they were polished in the round or oval shapes, withou...
-Spanish Metal Work
During the Arab rule in Spain metal work was an important branch of the Moorish arts. The Arab rulers had in their train many accomplished Eastern artists in metal work, and such objects as caskets, j...
-Metal Work In Italy, Germany, France, And England
In Italy during the eleventh century an endeavour was made to revive the art of the goldsmith, and many objects of Byzantine workmanship were brought from Constantinople, and also many articles for ch...
-Metal Work In Italy, Germany, France, And England. Part 2
Fig. 151. Golden Altar Front'; from BÆ'sle. Cluny Museum. Eleventh Century. Fig. 152. Gloucester Candlestick; Twelfth Century. Fig. 153. Seven-Branched Candlestick in Milan Cathedral. Fig. 154. L...
-Metal Work In Italy, Germany, France, And England. Part 3
Some names of Italian goldsmiths about or immediately after Cellini's time are - Luca Agnolo, Valerio Vicentino, Pilote, Piero di Mino, Vincenzo Dati, Girolamo del Prato. The latter was a native of Lo...
-Metal Work In Italy, Germany, France, And England. Part 4
Not only Henry VIII., but his great lords and ministers, had extensive collections of plate. Cardinal Wolsey had a large safe or cupboard, barred all round for protection, in which was displayed a goo...
-Metal Work In Italy, Germany, France, And England. Part 5
About 1750 the forms in silver work partook, in many instances, of the prevailing fashion in the chinaware of that date, though without the extravagance in the decoration. From 1770, and for about ten...
-Nlello-Work And Damascening
Niello-work has been mentioned on a previous page. It was an important branch of the goldsmith's art, as well as that of damascening. From the earliest times the nations of antiquity have engraved on ...
-Indian Jewellery
The jewellery of India is one of the most important art industries of that country, and the trade of the gold and silver smith is an established institution in every village and district. The variatio...
-Iron Work In France, Germany, Belgium, Italy And England
Ornamental iron work was executed in France and in England before the Roman occupation of these countries, but any early remains of this work that have been found in either country are supposed to be ...
-Iron Work In France, Germany, Belgium, Italy And England. Continued
In the fourteenth century the Germans developed the French vine-work into lozenge-shaped leaves, and for a change interspersed them with fleurs-de-lis, and occasionally some tracery patterns, all of w...
-Chapter V. Furniture. Antique: Egypt, Assyria, Greece, And Rome
The furniture of the antique nations has been noticed in some instances in the former volume of this work, especially in the cases of Egyptian and Assyrian examples, where fortunately we can point out...
-Furniture. Antique: Egypt, Assyria, Greece, And Rome. Continued
The Furnishing Of The Houses Of The Romans The Furnishing Of The Houses Of The Romans was very much of the same character as that of the Greeks and Etruscans, from whom the Romans inherited all their...
-Byzantine, Romanesque, Saracenic, And The Furniture Of The Middle Ages
The furniture, such as tables, chairs, beds, and the chariots, of the Byzantine period, was like the architecture in having something of the classic Roman mixture with some Asiatic Greek forms in its ...
-Byzantine, Romanesque, Saracenic, And The Furniture Of The Middle Ages. Continued
Chests, Trunks, Or Bahuts Chests, Trunks, Or Bahuts, were at this period, and in the time of the Normans, the most important articles in furniture: they were often made with inlaid wood decorations, ...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance
In the early part of the fifteenth century and during the whole of the century the furniture of Europe generally was designed more or less on Gothic lines, but gradually the new forms that were now ra...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance. Part 2
In France, during the reigns of Fran*¡ois I., Catherine de' Medici, and Henri II., a great activity took place in architecture and in all the industrial arts, in which that country not only imitated, ...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance. Part 3
Towards the end of the sixteenth century, and during the earlier half of the seventeenth, the sumptuous furniture, the beds, and general furnishing of the better class of houses and palaces in France ...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance. Part 4
After the death of Boulle his four sons carried on the making of this celebrated marquetry, but in a coarser and feebler style of design and of inferior workmanship. Other *šb*šnistes tried to imitate...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance. Part 5
Fig. 243. Boulle Cabinet. S. K. M). Fig. 245. Carved Bracket; English; Eighteenth Century. (P). Fig. 246. Mirror Frame; Seventeenth Century. (P). Fig. 247. Holy Water Vessel; English; Seventeenth C...
-Italian And Other Furniture Of The Renaissance. Part 6
The parlour chairs (Fig. 253) are good examples of Chippendale furniture, and the chairs made in the so-called Chinese style (Fig. 254) are attributed to the elder Chippendale. Sherraton And Heppel...
-Chapter VI. Textile Fabrics
Weaving Weaving is an art that has been practised from prehistoric times. Grasses, shreds of bark, rushes, bast, etc., were at first woven, and used as articles of dress and coverings such as we see ...
-Textile Fabrics. Continued
The Introduction Of The Silkworm The Introduction Of The Silkworm did not cheapen the price of silk; on the contrary, the production of the royal looms were sold at excessive prices, and far beyond t...
-Textiles Of India
The textiles of India form an important section of the industrial arts of that country. The materials used in the woven and embroidered fabrics are silk, cotton, wool, hair, coloured grasses, jute, go...
-Textiles Of India. Part 2
The Sassanian Persian Designs In Silk The Sassanian Persian Designs In Silk, as we have seen, were derived from the more ancient Assyrian and Babylonian embroideries, the motives of which were invari...
-Textiles Of India. Part 3
Fig. 262. Silk Damask; Eleventh Century; Early Saracenic (L. P). Fig. 263. Silk Fabric of Iconium; Arabian; Thirteenth Century. (Lyons Museum). Fig. 265. Apostolic Tree of Life, with the Cross Emble...
-Embroidery
The earliest method of decorating textiles was that of embroidering. It has been called painting with the needle, and is even an older art than pattern weaving. In some of the oldest monuments of ar...
-Embroidery. Continued
About the date of the thirteenth century various technical names were given to the different kinds of embroidery, such as opusplu-tnartunty, or, as it is now called, feather-stitch, a kind of need...
-Tapestry
Tapestry weaving is an art that requires greater care and skill on the part of the workman than any other branch of textile manufacture, especially in that kind known as storied tapestry, in which i...
-Tapestry. Continued
Owing to the occupation of Flanders by the Spanish (1555-1648), the palace at Madrid contains the most extensive collection of Flemish tapestries in existence, which had been chiefly acquired during t...
-Lace
Hand-Made Laces Hand-Made Laces are divided into two great classes the needle-point and the pillow-made; the former is made with a needle on parchment, and the latter by twisting or plaiting thre...
-Lace. Continued
Fig. 276. Genoese Point Lace. Fig. 277. a. Brussels ground; B, Two-thread Mesh; D, Woven Ground. Fig. 278. Lappet Brussels; Eighteenth Century. Fig. 279. Lappet; Point d'Alen*¡on; Eighteenth Cent...
-Chapter VII. Mosaics
The word mosaic is applied generally to a decorative work executed with small cubes or tesserae made from various coloured marbles or enamels, cut into convenient sizes according to the requirements o...
-Mosaics. Part 2
Fig. 286. Roman Mosaic, from Woodchester. Fig. 287. Roman Mosaic, found at Avignon. Fig. 288. Ancient Roman Mosaic. Mosaic pavements with subjects of combats of lions and bulls in a savage landscap...
-Mosaics. Part 3
Fig. 289. Head in Mosaic, from the Battle of Issus. On the walls of the narthex, Christ is represented seated on a throne, the crowned figure of Justinian prostrate at his feet, and on the gold bac...
-Mosaics. Part 4
The most important mosaics of this period in Italy were those which decorate the tribune of the basilica of St. John Lateran at Rome, executed by Jacobus Toriti between the years 1287 and 1292, and th...
-Mosaics. Part 5
The most important mosaic of the latter century in St. Mark's is that which decorates the fa*¡ade, the subject being The Dedication of the Church. From the remains of the original mosaics which hav...
-Mosaics. Part 6
In England, during the present half of this century, there has been several attempts to popularise mosaic decoration. Full-length figures of the chief ancient and modern sculptors, painters, and archi...
-Chapter VIII. Glass
The manufacture of glass is of great antiquity. The invention has been ascribed to the Phoenicians, but specimens of glass beads, amulets, plaques, vases, and small phials or bottles have been found i...
-Glass. Part 2
The Celebrated Barberini Or Portland Vase The Celebrated Barberini Or Portland Vase, in the British Museum, is made in a blue and white cameo. This splendid work of art was discovered in a marble sar...
-Glass. Part 3
Glass Furnaces Glass Furnaces were becoming so numerous in Venice that the Great Council decreed, in 1291, they should be demolished, but permitted them to be set up outside the city, in the suburban...
-Glass. Part 4
Mirrors were made by the ancients of polished metal and from slabs of black obsidian - a kind of natural glass. In mediaeval times they were made of clear glass behind which was placed a sheet of lead...
-Glass. Part 5
Many relics of glass vessels and beads have been found in Roman tombs, and in various parts of England, of a greenish or blue colour. These may have been imported or may have been made in England, but...
-Chapter IX. The Decoration Of Books
Books may be illustrated in a more or less pictorial manner without any particular regard to the decoration of the page, or with due regard to its ornamentation. In the latter case the designer of the...
-The Decoration Of Books. Part 2
Fig. 310. Portion of Illuminated Monogram; Book of Kells. (S). Fig. 311. From the Epistle of Jerome; Book of Durrow. (S). The majority of the Anglo-Saxon manuscripts, if not written by Irish scrib...
-The Decoration Of Books. Part 3
The invention was soon after applied to the production of the xylographic or block-printed books, which were printed in colour from the block. The colour was spread on the block, a sheet of paper was ...
-The Decoration Of Books. Part 4
Somewhat in the style of The Dream of Poliphilus is the illustration (Fig. 314) from an edition of Dante's Inferno of the same period. A reduced specimen of the flat treatment of a Renaissance bo...
-The Decoration Of Books. Part 5
Book decoration had become more and more pictorial and less decorative when the method employed was line engraving, for, generally speaking, pictures in oil or water-colour were copied with great fide...







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