Rajpootana (formerly Rajasthan), a territory of British India, consisting of 18 native states, principally inhabited by Rajpoots, in subsidiary alliance with the British government. This aggregation of states, which completely encloses the district of Ajmeer, extends E. and W. a distance of 520 m. between lon. 69° 35' and 78° 10' E., and N. and S. 480 m. between lat. 23° 15' and 30° 10' N. It is bounded N. by Bhawalpoor and the Punjaub; E. by the Northwest Provinces, the Chitore hills, and the river Chumbul, a tributary of the Jumna, beyond which lie the dominions of Sindia; S. by Malwa and Guzerat; and W. by Sinde. For purposes of British intervention and control the region is divided into seven political agencies, and the following table exhibits the area and population of the several states in each:

DIVISIONS.

Area in square miles.

Population.

Mewar Agency:

Odeypoor or Mewar........................................

11,614

1,161,400

Purtabgurh.......................................................

1,460

150,000

Dongurpoor.....................................................

1,000

100,000

Banswara.....................................................

1,500

150,000

Jeypoor Agency:

Jeypoor......................................................

15,000

1,900,000

Kishengurh..................................................

720

70,000

Bickaneer....................................................

17,676

539,000

Marwar Agency:

Joodpoor or Marwar...............................

36,672

1,783,600

Jessulmeer...............................................

12,252

70,000

Haraotee Agency:

Boondee...................................................

2,291

220,000

Kotah........................................................

5,000

433,400

Jhalawar..............................................

2,500

220,000

Tonk...........................................................

1,800

182,000

Eastern States Agency:

Dholepoor..................................................

1,626

500,000

Bhurtpoor...................................................

1,974

650,000

Kerowlee....................................................

1,260

140,000

Alwur (or Ulwur) Agency:

Alwur............................................................................

3,000

778,596

Serohee Superintendency:

Serohee.........................

3,000

55,000

Total..........................

120,845

9,105,996

The Aravulli mountains are for the most part within the limits of Rajpootana, extending from Ajmeer southwesterly between Marwar and Mewar to Mt. Aboo, near the southern frontier of the country in the state of Serohee, where they attain a height of 5,650 ft. The regions of Marwar immediately W. of the range are watered by the river Loonee, which rises on its western slope and flows S. W. more than 200 m. into the runn of Cutch. Westward, beyond this river, a great part of Rajpootana is a sandy expanse of desert, extending from Joodpoor, the capital of Marwar, through Jessulmeer, the westernmost of the Rajpoot states. The towns scattered over this arid tract are situated in oases, and among them are some of the most salubrious and beautiful inhabited places in India. The state of Bickaneer, in the north, bordering upon Bhawalpoor, is also a dry and desolate region. Greater fertility prevails in the states which lie N. E. and E. of Ajmeer and the Aravulli range, and which are watered by the Chumbul and its tributaries, as well as by other affluents of the Jumna. Directly N. of Ajmeer, on the boundary between Jeypoor and Joodpoor, is the Sambhur salt lake, 22 m. long and 6 m. broad, which yields a valuable product of salt, the annual receipts from the Joodpoor portion being about £40,000. There are several smaller lakes in the country. - Of the 18 states of Rajpootana, 15 are occupied principally by Rajpoots; there are two Jat states, Dholepoor and Bhurtpoor; and the population of Tonk is Mohammedan. Each of the seven political agencies is under the charge of a British officer, who maintains constant political relations with the native ministers of state.

The chief administrative and diplomatic authority for the entire territory is vested in a political agent of the viceroy, who resides at Ajmeer and on Mt. Aboo. An interjurisdictional court of wakils is held under the presidency of the Marwar agent, for the settlement of all disputes between the several states of Rajpootana. In March, 1873, the military force stationed in Rajpootana comprised 2,919 native infantry, 1,472 native cavalry, and 42 British officers. - The Rajpoots, by far the most numerous portion of the population, who claim to be descendants of the original Kshattriya caste of the Hindoos, appear to have inhabited the country from the earliest historical period. Notwithstanding their formidable resistance to the Mohammedan invasion, they became peaceful subjects of the earlier emperors, who treated their religion with tolerance; but in the time of Aurungzebe his oppressive measures induced them to take part in the war of the Mahrattas against him. Subsequently Rajpootana was invaded by various marauding armies, but in 1761 the Rajpoots had achieved practical independence both of the Mohammedans and of the Mahrattas. In the early part of the present century Sindia and Holkar exacted tribute from the chiefs, and the Pindarrees made repeated incursions into the country, which were so destructive that British intervention was necessary to save the people from ruin; and the principal Rajpoot states were transferred to the English, by the consent of their own rulers, in 1818, after the British forces had defeated Holkar and expelled the Pindarree robbers.

A few were acquired earlier, and others subsequently. Their present political status is that of subject-allied states. - See Tod's "Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan" (London, 1829), and Malleson's "Historical Sketch of the Native States of India" (1875).