Sir Henry Creswicke, an English archaeologist, born at Chadlington, Oxfordshire, in 1810. In 1826 he entered the military service of the East India company, and served in Bombay till 1833, and subsequently in the Persian army. In 1835, while stationed at Kermanshah, he began to study the cuneiform inscriptions at Mt. Elvend. In 1837 he copied the first column of the great Behistun inscription and four minor inscriptions, and on Jan. 1, 1838, submitted a report to the Asiatic society in London. The outbreak of the war in Afghanistan interrupted his labors. After exploring various regions of central Asia, he was for some time political agent at Candahar, and returned in the same capacity to Bagdad. In 1844 he forwarded to London complete copies of the Persian portion of the Behistun inscription, of which the Asiatic society published facsimiles in 1846, and which included more of the cuneiform writing of the first kind than the aggregate of all other inscriptions then known in Europe. (See Cuneiform Inscriptions.) He was consul at Bagdad from 1844 to 1851, and consul general till 1855. After returning to England he was knighted and appointed a director of the East India company.
In 1858 he was elected to parliament for Rei-gate, and from 1859 to 1860 he was minister at Teheran with the rank of major general. He represented Frome in parliament from 1865 to 1868, when he was reappointed member of the council for India. In 1871-'3 he was president of the royal geographical society, which office he again holds (1875); and he also presides over the society of Biblical archaeology. Besides his numerous contributions.to the journals of Asiatic societies and other learned periodicals, he has published "On the Inscriptions of Assyria and Babylonia" (London, 1850); "Outline of the History of Assyria, as collected from the Inscriptions discovered by A. H. Layard in the Ruins of Nineveh" (1852); "Memorandum on the Publication of the Cuneiform Inscriptions" (1855); contributions to his brother's "Herodotus" (4 vols., 1858-'60); "A Selection from the Historical Inscriptions of Chaldaea, Assyria, and Babylonia" (fol., 1861); in conjunction with Nor-ris, " The Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia" (3 vols., 1861-'70, lithographed for the British museum); and jointly with George Smith, "A Selection from the Miscellaneous Inscriptions of Assyria" (fol., 1870). In 1874-'5 appeared his "England and Russia in the East," a series of papers on the political and geographical condition of central Asia.
George,an English historian and orientalist, brother of the preceding, born at Chadlington in 1815. He graduated at Oxford in 1838, became a fellow and tutor of Exeter college, and was Bampton lecturer from 1859 to 1861, and Camden professor of ancient history from 1861 to 1874, when he became canon of Canterbury cathedral. He has published "Historical Evidences of the Truth of the Scripture Records" (London, 1860); "The Contrasts of Christianity with the Heathen and Jewish Systems" (1861); in conjunction with his brother Henry and Sir J. G. Wilkinson, an annotated translation of "Herodotus" (4vols., 1858-'60); and "Historical Illustrations of the Old Testament" (1871). His most celebrated works are "The Five Great Monarchies of the Ancient Eastern "World, or the History, Geography, and Antiquities of Chaldaea, Assyria, Babylonia, Media, and Persia " (4 vols., 1862-7; 2d ed., republished in New York, 1871), "A Manual of Ancient History" (1869), and "The Sixth Great Oriental Monarchy, or the Geography, the History, and the Antiquities of Parthia" (1873).