Winnipeg, a city, port of entry, and the capital of the province of Manitoba, Canada, on the W. bank of Red river and the N. bank of the Assiniboin, at their confluence, 50 m. by the course of the former above Lake Winnipeg, and 90 m. below the United States boundary, nearly 400 m. (direct) N. N. W. of St. Paul, Minn.; lat. 49° 52' N., Ion. 96° 58' W.; pop. in 1875, about 7,000. It covers an area of 3 sq. m. The streets are well graded and provided with sidewalks. Water works and a system of sewerage are projected. The chief public buildings are the governor's residence, court house, city hall, post office, custom house, Merchants' bank, Ontario bank, Dominion land office, and Hudson Bay company's office, which with many warehouses are large and elegant structures of white brick manufactured in the neighborhood. Opposite, on the E. bank of the Red river, is St. Boniface, the residence of the Roman Catholic archbishop, which has a fine stone cathedral. Winnipeg is the headquarters of the Dominion bureaus relating to the Northwest territories, and in America of the Hudson Bay company. It has a healthful climate, the air being dry and bracing. The heat, though not oppressive, is sometimes great in summer, and the cold extreme in winter.
The city communicates with the United States' by steamboat or stage to Moorhead, Minn., on the Red river, and thence by rail to Duluth or St. Paul. It is also reached from the province of Ontario by way of Fort William on Lake Superior, and thence by the " Dawson route," about 480 m., across the chain of portages. A line of railroad is in course of construction along the E. bank of the Red river to the junction of the Northern Pacific and St. Paul and Pacific railroads at Glyndon, Minn. This line is expected to be completed in 1876. The Canadian Pacific railroad, under construction E. from Winnipeg, is expected to reach Lake Superior in 1877. The trade of the city is important, and consists chiefly in jobbing to the traders on the plains of the Saskatchewan, Bow, Mackenzie, and Peace rivers, and in furnishing supplies to government survey, exploration, and railroad construction parties, and to the new settlements and arriving immigrants. The exports consist chiefly of furs. The imports from all sources for the year ending June 30, 1874, amounted to $2,662,442; the exports of furs in August, 1874, to $146,780. The assessed value of property in 1874 was $2,675,768, upon which the city charter allows a levy of only one per cent.
There are good common schools, a young ladies' school, and four colleges (Episcopal, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and Wesleyan). A daily and four weekly (one French) newspapers are published. There are Baptist, Episcopal, Presbyterian, Roman Catholic, and two Wesleyan churches. - The place was formerly known as Fort Garry, taking its name from the Hudson Bay company's post established here more than half a century ago, and the post office name is still Fort Garry. It was the chief centre of the Indian and Hudson Bay company's trade. A new impulse was received with its occupation by troops in the autumn of 1870, after the suppression of Riel's rebellion (see Manitoba), when its population was less than 300. It was incorporated as a city in November, 1873, with about 2,500 inhabitants.
A Lake Of British North America, between lat. 50° 20 and 54° N., and Ion. 96° and 99° W. It is of irregular shape, being about 260 m. in length from N. N. W. to S. S. E., and from 6 to 60 m. wide; area, about 8,500 sq. m.; length of coast line, about 930 m. It is 628 ft. above the level of the sea, and does not exceed 12 fathoms in depth. It contains many islands. Ice forms to a thickness frequently of 5 ft., and does not leave the upper part of the lake before the 10th of June. Through its tributaries it receives the drainage of an immense extent of territory, the area of its basin being estimated at 400,000 sq. m. Berens river enters on the east, the Winnipeg on the southeast, Red river on the south, Dauphin river (which discharges the waters of Manitoba and Winnipegosis lakes) on the west, and the Saskatchewan on the northwest. It receives no affluents from the north, but at this point discharges its waters through Nelson river into Hudson bay. The name Winnipeg in Algonquin signifies "dirty water".
A River, having its source in the lake of the Woods, on the border of Minnesota and British America, and flowing N. W. into Lake Winnipeg. Its- length is 165 m. It contains numerous rapids, having a total fall of 349 ft., and is only navigable by canoes and barges. At one point it is called White river from the continuous foaming of the rapids. It discharges the waters of the chain of lakes along the international boundary, its remote sources being in the height of land separating the affluents of Lake Superior from those of Hudson bay.