Archibald Campbell

See Argyll, Duke of.

Archibald Campbell Tait

Archibald Campbell Tait, an English clergyman, born in Edinburgh, Dec. 22, 1811. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh and at Balliol college, Oxford, and was afterward public examiner of the university. He was prominent in the opposition to the trac-tarians. In 1842 he succeeded Dr. Arnold as head master of Rugby school, where he remained eight years. In 1850 he was made dean of Carlisle, in 1856 bishop of London, and in 1868 archbishop of Canterbury. He has published "The Dangers and Safeguards of Modern Theology" (London, 1861), "The Word of God and the Ground of Faith" (1863), and two volumes of sermons.

Arias Montanus

See Arias Montanus.

Armand Angnstin Joseph Marie De Pontmartin

Armand Angnstin Joseph Marie De Pontmartin, a French author, born in Avignon, July 16, 1811. He studied at the college Saint Louis in Paris, and early became known for his ultramontane and controversial zeal as a writer for the Revue des Deux Mondes. His various series of Causeries litter aires and Causeries du Samedi comprise 19 volumes (1854-'74). He also published Contes et nouvelles (1853), the best being Aurelie; Lefond de la coupe (1855); and several novels, including Memoires d'un notaire (3 vols., 1849; new ed., 1869), and La Jin du proces (1855; new ed., 1869). In 1872 appeared his Le Jilleul de Beaumarchais. His reputation rests on his critical writings.

Armand Joseph Dc Bethune Charost

Armand Joseph Dc Bethune Charost, duke de, a French philanthropist, a descendant of Sully, born at Versailles, July 1, 1728, died in Paris, Oct. 27, 1800. He devoted himself to the improvement of agriculture and of the condition of the laboring classes, emancipating the peasants on his estates, and promoting their education. His influence was extensive, and Louis XV. himself acknowledged his services. When France was exposed to invasion during the revolution, the duke, although he had little sympathy for the new government, contributed a large sum of money for the common defence. Nevertheless he was arrested and his property confiscated, but he escaped the guillotine.

Armand Marie Felix Jobbe-Duval

Armand Marie Felix Jobbe-Duval, a French painter, born at Carhaix, Finistere, in 1825. He studied under Delaroche, and became known as a genre, portrait, and religious painter of the so-called Neo-Greek school, excelling by his delicate treatment of his subjects. He was adjunct mayor of Paris in 1870-71, but resigned shortly after the installation of the commune, and subsequently became one of the municipal councillors. Among the best known of his numerous works are "The Painting of the Virgin" (1849), "The Toilet of a Bride" (1857), "The Jews expelled from Spain " (1857), and paintings of the life of St. Francis for the Paris church of Saint Louis en l'lle (1864).

Armand Trousseau

Armand Trousseau, a French physician, born in Tours, Oct. 14, 1801, died June 23, 1867. He graduated in medicine at Paris in 1825. In 1828 he was sent by government to investigate endemic and epidemic diseases prevalent in the central departments of France, and the yellow fever at Gibraltar. In 1831 he was appointed hospital physician; in 1837 he received the grand prize of the academy of medicine for a treatise on phthisis laryngea; and in 1839 he was appointed professor of therapeutics and materia medica in the faculty of medicine. He was prominent in introducing and establishing the practice of tracheotomy in croup and paracentesis thoracis in cases of dangerous or long continued pleuritic effusion. His most important works are Traité elemen-taire de therapeutique et de mature médicale (Paris, 1836; 8th ed., 2 vols., 1867), which was translated into English, Spanish, and Italian, and Nouvelles recherches sur la trachéotomie dans la période extreme du croup (1851).