Beruhard Severin Ingemann

Beruhard Severin Ingemann, a Danish poet, born at Torkildstrup, on the island of Falster, May 28, 1789, died in Copenhagen, Feb. 24, 1862. He was the son of a clergyman, and was still at the university when he published a volume of poetry in 1811. After his return from his travels in Europe he became connected in 1822 with the academy of Soro, of which he was a director from 1843 till its suspension in 1849. His most celebrated works are his epics Waldemar de Store and Holger Danske, his national anthem Danebrog, and his sacred songs. Many of his picturesque novels in relation to mediaeval Denmark have been translated into English and other foreign languages. His complete works include dramatic poems (6 vols., 1843), historical poems and novels (12 vols., 1847-'51), tales and stories (12 vols., 1847-56), and ballads, songs, and fables (9 vols., 1845-'64). His autobiography, edited by Galskjoet, appeared in 1862.


Berytus. See Beyrout.


Besitun. See Behistun.


Beth-Horon (Heb., place of caverns), Upper and Lower, two villages of ancient Palestine, situated 9 m. N. W. of Jerusalem. The former is identical with the modern village of Beit Ur d-Foka, and the other corresponds to Beit Ur el-Tahta. There is a pass between the two villages, down which Joshua pursued the Amorite kings. Beth-horon was included within the district of Ephraim. Solomon fortified it, probably on account of its commanding position and because it was the key of the principal pass to Jerusalem. Traces of ancient walls are still visible.


Bethleuemites. I. An ancient monastic order as to which there is great uncertainty, no monastery being known except that at Cambridge, England, said by Matthew Paris to have been founded in 1257. II. An order of religious hospitallers founded about 1055 in Guatemala by Fray Pedro de Betancurt of St. Joseph, a native of Teneriffe. He was a Franciscan tertiary, and his associates assumed that habit, but soon adopted constitutions of their own, which were approved by Pope Innocent XI in 1687. They devoted themselves to the education of the poor and the care of the sick. The order spread to Mexico and Peru, and also, it is said, to the Canary islands, being governed by a general at Guatemala. A year after Fray Pedro's death in 1667, the Bethlehemite nuns were founded by Maria Anna del Galdo, also a Franciscan tertiary, and devoted themselves to the same objects among their own sex.


Bethune, a fortified town of Artois, France, in the department of Pas-de-Calais, on the Law and Aire canals, built on a rock above the river Brette, 10 m. N. N. W. of Arras; pop. in 1866, 8,178. It has a Gothic cathedral, a communal college, and several hospitals. The triangular fortress and citadel are among Vau-ban's finest works. Linen, cloth, beet-root sugar, and other articles, are manufactured here, and the trade is important. The town was ruled by local counts from the 11th to the middle of the 17th century. The title of count of Bethune became extinct in 1807. Gaston d'Orleans took Bethune from the Spaniards in 1645; it was retaken by Prince Eugene in 1710, and definitively annexed to France by the treaty of Utrecht (1713). The first artesian wells are said to have been bored here.