August Wilhelm Leu, a German painter, born in Munster in 1819. He studied in Dusseldorf, and became distinguished as a landscape painter and as a professor in the Dusseldorf academy. His works include admirable specimens of the mountain scenery of Norway, where he spent some time. He also collected rich materials in the picturesque regions of Bavaria, Austria, Switzerland, and Italy. He is alike successful in delineating the sombre winter and the bright summer aspects of northern scenery.
Augusta Evans (Wilson), an American novelist, born in Columbus, Ga., May 8, 1835. Her earlier novels were published under the name of Augusta J. Evans. In 1868 she married L. M. Wilson of Mobile, where she has since resided. She has published "Inez" (New York, 1856), written at the age of 17; "Beulah" (1859); "Macaria" (1864); "St. Elmo " (1866); " Vashti" (1869); and " Infelice " (1875).
Augusta Historia, the name given to a series of Roman biographers of the emperors from the accession of Hadrian (117) to the death of Carinus (385), the predecessor of Diocletian. The writers included in this collection are AElius Spartianas, Julius Capitolinus, AElius Lampridius, Valcatius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio, and Flavius Vopiscus of Syracuse. Some editors have included others, as Eutropius and Paulus Diaconus. There is a break in the Augusta Historia in the absence of the lives of Philippus, Decius, and Gallus. The Bipontine edition is the best.
Augustan Age, the Roman literary epoch which culminated in the reign of Augustus Ca3sar. During this period Cicero, Horace, Ovid, Virgil, Catullus, Tibullus, and other writers flourished; also great patrons of literature like Maecenas. The purest Latinity belongs to the authors of the Augustan age. In English literature it was common in the last century to apply the phrase "Augustan age of English literature " to the times of Addison, Steele, Swift, and Defoe, and the writers during the reign of Queen Anne. The siecle (d'Auguste of French literature is the latter years of the reign of Louis XIV. This metaphor has no modern application beyond the literature of France and England.
Augustas Leopold Egg, an English painter, born in London, May 2, 1816, died in Algiers, March 26, 1863. He became a contributor to the academy exhibition in 1838, and was elected associate of that institution in 1848, and a member in 1860. He produced a great number of pictures illustrative of humorous scenes from Shakspeare, Le Sage, and Scott.
Auguste De Saint-Hilaire, a French botanist, born in Orleans, Oct. 4, 1799, died there, Sept. 30, 1853. He was auditor in the council of state in Paris, explored Brazil, and published Flora Brasilioe Meridionalis (3 vols., Paris, 1825-'32), and other works, which procured his admission to the institute.
Auguste Francois Chomel, a French physician, born April 13, 1788, died in Paris, April 10, 1858. Under the instruction of Boyer, Cor-visart, and Pinel, he made rapid progress in his studies, and at an early age was attached to the medical service of the hospitals in Paris. In 1813 he published an Essai sur les rlieuma-tismes; in 1817, Elemens de patliologie gene-rule; in 1821, Traite des fievres et des maladies pestilentielles, which was attacked by Broussais, but which has outlived Broussais's theory, and made a reputation for the author. In 1827 Choniel was appointed professor of medicine at the faculty of Paris, as successor to the celebrated Laennec, whose views he held and taught in the same chair. His practice became more lucrative than that of any other physician in France. Genest, Requin, and Sestier published their notes of his clinical lectures on typhoid fevers, rheumatisms, and pneumonia (3 vols. 8vo, 1836), which are still deemed standard works in France.