Cannonsburg, a post borough of Washington co., Penn., 18 m. S. W. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 1870, 641. It is the seat of Washington and Jefferson college, a Presbyterian institution, which in 1871 had 10 instructors, 118 students, of whom 39 were in the preparatory department, and a library of 17,000 volumes.


Canonicus, an Indian chief of the Narra-gansett tribe, born about 1565, died June 4, 1647. He was the firm friend of the English, and especially of Roger Williams, whom, to use the words of the latter, he loved "as his own son to his last gasp." From him Williams obtained, March 24, 1638, the grant of land for his settlement of the future state of Rhode Island. During his life the Narragansetts were engaged in several Indian wars, but remained at peace with the white men. Many years after his death, however, under the famous King Philip, they became involved in a war with the English, which resulted in their extermination.


Canopus, a star of the first magnitude in the constellation Argo Navis. It is in the end of the rudder, and is 37° from the south pole. It is therefore a southern circumpolar star, and is never visible in the latitude of the northern United States.


Canossa, a town of Italy, in the province and 24 m. S. W. of Modena; pop. about 1,200. It contains a castle in which the emperor Henry IV. performed three days' penance, bareheaded and barefooted, before Pope Gregory VII. in January, 1077.

Canovai Stanislao

Canovai Stanislao, an Italian ecclesiastic and mathematician, born in Florence, March 27, 1740, died there, Nov. 17, 1811. Having taken holy orders, he officiated as professor of mathematics at Cortona. In 1788, as a member of the academy of antiquities, he contended for the prize which was offered for an essay on Amer-icus Vespucius. He opposed the common opinion that Columbus was the first discoverer of the mainland of America, claiming that Vespucius one year before him had touched upon the northern part of the continent, and had afterward landed in Brazil. His paper gained the prize, but produced much controversy. He published an Italian translation of Gardiner's tables of logarithms, and had a good reputation as an ecclesiastic.

Cantabrian Mountains

Cantabrian Mountains, a range in the K part of Spain, formed by a W. prolongation of the Pyrenees, and extending from that chain parallel with the S. shore of the bay of Biscay, W. to Cape Finisterre. They bear various names in the different provinces through which they pass, the best known being those of Sierras de Aralar, Salvada, and Cobadongo, mountains of Asturias, and Sierra de Peflama-rella. Some of the summits are rugged, precipitous, and clad with magnificent forests; others are crowned with perpetual snow. The maximum elevation is about 10,000 ft.


Cantagallo, an inland town of Brazil, in the province and 80 m. N. E. of Rio de Janeiro; pop. 4,200. The streets are regular, and the houses mostly well built. In the circular market place stands the churclubetween two parallel streets. Cantagallo was founded by ga-rampeiros or gold-hunters and smugglers, who, having discovered rich mines there, quietly took possession of the place, and for a long time forwarded enormous quantities of the precious metal to the capital, the source of which the government was long unable to discover. At the commencement of the present century the mines were almost exhausted, and the inhabitants were obliged to direct their attention to agricultural pursuits, which still continue to be their chief occupation.