Lewis Evans

Lewis Evans, an American geographer and surveyor, born about 1700, died in June, 1756. During an active professional life he collected many materials for a map of the British North American colonies, and in 1749 published one of the middle colonies, chiefly of New York, New Jersey, and Delaware, and of the Indian country adjacent. A second edition appeared in 1755, much enlarged, and containing in addition Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, and a part of New England. He also published "Geographical, Historical, Political, Philosophical, and Mechanical Essays" (No. 1, Philadelphia, 1755; No. 2, London, 1756). A new edition of his map appeared in 1776.

Lewis Morris

Lewis Morris, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, half brother of the preceding, born at Morrisania, Westchester co., N. Y., in 1726, died there, Jan. 22, 1798. He graduated at Yale college in 1746, and engaged in farming on a very extensive scale on his paternal estate at Morrisania. He took strong ground against the act of parliament compelling the inhabitants of the province of New York to furnish with supplies the foreign troops quartered upon them. He was elected to the congress of 1775, and was a member of the committee on munitions of war. After the close of the session he was sent west to detach the Indians from the British. In 1776 he resumed his seat in congress, and signed the Declaration of Independence, although his estate was at that time in the hands of the enemy. As a consequence his manor was laid waste, and his family expelled. He afterward served in the state legislature.

Lewis River

See Snake River.


Lewisbirg, a borough and the capital of Union co., Pennsylvania, on the W. branch of Susquehanna river, here crossed by a bridge, at the mouth of Buffalo creek, 49 m. N. of Harris-burg; pop. in 1870, 3,121. It is situated on a branch of the Philadelphia and Erie railroad, 2 m. from the main line, and has considerable trade in grain and other produce. It contains two iron founderies, two national banks, two weekly newspapers, and eight churches. The borough is the seat of Lewisburg university and University female institute, established in 1847 by the Baptists. The former in 1874 had 7 professors, 150 students (73 of collegiate grade), and a library of 5,000 volumes; the latter, 9 instructors, 116 students, and a library of 1,000 volumes.

Leyden Jar

See Electricity, vol. vi., p. 509.


See Lassa.


Lias, an English provincial name for a group of strata lying at the base of the Jurassic formation, and more or less intermingled with the overlying oolite; but in the Jura the two formations are distinct, the oolite reposing un-conformably upon the lias. Over a considerable portion of Europe it is found in alternating beds of clay, sandstones, and limestones, which altogether attain a thickness of 500 to 1,000 ft. The limestones have a peculiar appearance, lying in thin strata of a bluish or grayish color within, and light brown without where exposed to the weather. (See Geology, vol. vii., p. 697.) The formation is especially interesting in Europe for the variety of fossils it affords, the most extraordinary among which are the huge reptiles, the ichthyosaurus and plesiosaurus of several species. The limestones abound also in corallines, and in a great variety of shells. The fish are all of extinct genera.