See Sarmatia.

Royal Fern

See Osmunda.

Royall Tyler

Royall Tyler, an American author, born in Boston, July 18, 1757, died in Brattleboro, Vt., Aug. 16, 1826. He graduated at Harvard college in 1776, and studied law under John Adams. He was for a short time aide to Gen. Lincoln. In 1790 he commenced the practice of law in Guilford, Vt. From 1800 to 1806 he was chief justice of the state supreme court, and he published "Reports of Cases in the Supreme Court of Vermont" (2 vols., 1809). He was also known as a dramatist, his play " The Contrast," produced in New York in 1786, being the first American play acted by a regular company, and the first also in which an attempt was made to portray the conventional Yankee character. It Was followed by "May Day, or New York in an Uproar" (1787), and " The Georgia Spec, or Land in the Moon" (1797). He also published "The Algerine Captive," a novel (2 vols., 1799).


Rrixiiam, a seaport and market town of Devonshire, England, on the coast of the English channel, 23 m. S. of Exeter; pop. in 1871, 4,390. It is noted for its fisheries, which employ more than 200 vessels and 1,500 seamen. It was the landing place of William III. when he came to take possession of the English throne. A part of the stone upon which he set foot has been built into a monument, with the inscription: " On this stone, and near this spot, William prince of Orange first set foot, on his landing in England, 5th of November, 1688".

Rubicon, Or Rubico

Rubicon, Or Rubico, a small river of Italy, flowing into the Adriatic a little N. of Rimini (Ariminum), celebrated for its passage by Caesar in his march toward Rome, 49 B. C. This act was equivalent to a declaration of war against the republic, as the Rubicon was the dividing line between Italy and his province of Cisalpine Gaul. On reaching its brink he is said to have hesitated a moment and then plunged in, exclaiming: Jacta est alea ("The die is cast"). In 1756 a papal bull declared the Lusa, the larger and more southern of two neighboring streams, to be the Rubicon; but modern geographers generally prefer the Fiu-micino, formed by the Pisatello and Rugone.


Ruble, a Russian silver coin and unit of account. About the beginning of the 14th century the Russians began to use. silver in bars for purposes of trade. The act of cutting off from a bar sufficient weight for a payment was called rubit, whence the name ruble. The ruble is divided in account into 100 copecks. The value has greatly varied at different times. By the circular of the secretary of the treasury of the United States dated Jan 1, 1875, the rating of foreign silver coins has been considerably reduced owing to the depreciation of the value of silver as compared with gold. In the article Coins the value of the silver ruble in 1872 is given at 79.4 cents; by the above named circular it is now fixed at 73.4 cents. Gold is coined in pieces of five rubles; fractions of the ruble are in silver. For the paper ruble see Assignations.