William Josiah Irons

William Josiah Irons, an English clergyman and author, born at Hoddesden, Hertfordshire, Sept. 12, 1812. He graduated at Queen's college, Oxford, in 1833, was some time a curate in the suburbs of London, afterward vicar of Bark-way, Hertfordshire, and of Brompton, Middlesex, and in 1860 was made prebendary of St. Paul's, London. In 1870 he was chosen Bamp-ton lecturer, and the same year became rector of Wadingham, Lincolnshire, and rural dean. Dr. Irons has published a number of works, the most important of which are: "The Whole Doctrine of Final Causes" (1836); "Parochial Lectures" (three series, 1837-'47); "The Theory of Development examined " (1846); " Sermons for the People " (2 vols., 1859); "The Bible and its Interpreters, its Miracles and Prophecies;" "The Idea of the National Church" (1861), in the volume of "Replies to Essays and Reviews;" and " Christianity as taught by St. Paul" (Bampton lectures, 1870).

William Julins Mickle

William Julins Mickle, a Scottish poet, born at Lanirholm, Dumfriesshire, Sept. 29, 1734, died at Wheatley, Oxfordshire, Oct. 25, 1788. After pursuing various occupations and becoming bankrupt, he became in 1766 corrector of the Clarendon press at Oxford, and produced "Pollio," an elegy, and "The Concubine,"a moral poem, the title of which was afterward changed to "Syr Martyn." He published a translation of the first book of the "Lusiad" in 1771, and in 1775 completed the work which has passed through many editions. His most popular productions are "Cumnor Hall," which suggested "Kenilworth" to Scott, and the song "There's nae luck about the house," the authorship of which has been disputed.

William King

William King, an Irish bishop, born in Antrim in 1650, died in Dublin, May 8, 1729. He was educated at Trinity college, and ordained in 1674. In 1688 he became dean of St. Patrick's, but having taken a prominent part in the controversies of the time, and in opposition to the policy of the government, he was, after the revolution and the landing of James II. in Ireland in 1689, imprisoned in Dublin castle. On the departure of James he was liberated and restored to his deanery. In 1691 he was promoted to the see of Derry, and in 1702 became archbishop of Dublin. He was the author of many theological and controversial works, the most important of which is his treatise Be Origine Mali (1702), which provoked attacks from several formidable antagonists, among whom were Leibnitz and Bayle.

William Kitchiner

William Kitchiner, an English physician and author, born in London about 1775, died there in 1827. He was educated at Eton. His literary works are of a very miscellaneous character. They embrace treatises on gastronomy, health, the eye, telescopes, and music, together with a collection of the "Loyal and National Songs of England." The " Cook's Oracle" is perhaps the most important of his productions.

William Ladd

William Ladd, an American philanthropist, born in Exeter, N H, May 10, 1778, died in Portsmouth, April 9, 1841. He graduated at Harvard college in 1797, and took an active part in organizing the American peace society, of which he was for many years president. In its interests he edited the " Friend of Peace," commenced by Dr. Noah Worcester, and the "Harbinger of Peace," and published a number of essays and occasional addresses on the subject of peace, including " An Essay on a Congress of Nations " (8vo, Boston, 1840). He carried his views to the extent of denying the right to maintain defensive war, and caused this principle to be incorporated into the constitution of the American peace society.