Burgoyne. I. John, an English general, horn about 1730, died in London, August 4, 1792. He has been commonly represented as a natural son of Lord Bingley, but in Burke's "Peerage "he is mentioned as the grandson of Sir John Burgoyne of Sutton Park, Bedfordshire. While a subaltern in the army he married clandestinely a daughter of the earl of Derby. The earl settled £300 a year upon him, and used his influence for his promotion. In 1762 he served with distinction as brigadier general in Portugal. He was elected to parliament in 1761 for the borough of Midhurst. In 1768 he contested the borough of Preston at an expense of £10,000, and for excesses which it is said his partisans committed was prosecuted and fined £1,000. In the letters of Junius he was severely dealt with, on account of his presumed political connection with the duke of Grafton. In 1772, on his motion, parliament appointed a committee of inquiry on Indian affairs, and in the following year he moved unsuccessfully for a vote of censure on Lord Clive. Being appointed to a command in America, he reached Boston in May, 1775, and saw the battle of Bunker Hill, of which he wrote a graphic account to Lord Stanley. He returned home in December 1776, was appointed lieutenant general, and placed in command of the British army in Canada, where he arrived early in 1777. Having invited the Indians to join him, he captured Ticonderoga, July 6, but was defeated at Stillwater, N. Y., Sept. 19, and at Freeman's farm, Oct. 7, and was compelled to surrender at Saratoga, Oct. 17, to.the American army under Gates and Arnold. This surrender excited great indignation in England, and on his arrival in London the king refused to see him.
A court martial which he demanded was refused, on the ground that a prisoner on parole could not be tried. He published a narrative which removed some of the prejudices against him, and vindicated himself in parliament, throwing the blame of his disaster upon the American secretary. He joined the opposition, and an ineffectual attempt was made to exclude him from parliament on account of his being a prisoner of war. He then resigned all his appointments; but in 1782 he was restored to his rank in the army, and appointed privy councillor and commander-in-chief in Ireland. In 1784 he retired from public life. He wrote in 1780 a comic opera, " The Lord of the Manor," borrowed from the French, in 1786 a comedy, " The Heiress," which is still occasionally performed, and several other dramatic works. His plays and poems were collected and published in 2 volumes, in 1808. He died without legal issue. II. Sir John Fox, a British general, a natural son of the preceding, born in 1782, died in London, Oct. 7, 1871. He entered the army in August, 1798, as second lieutenant of engineers; served at Malta, in Egypt, in Sicily, and in Sweden, from 1800 to 1807; was with Sir John Moore in the peninsula in 1808, under Wellington from 1809 to 1814, and was present at the principal battles and sieges, conducted the sieges of Burgos and San Sebastian, and was twice wounded.
In 1814-'15 he was engineer-in-chief of the attack on New Orleans, and in 1826 was sent to Portugal in the same capacity. In 1830 he was made colonel and appointed chairman of the board of public works in Ireland; major general in 1838; and was inspector general of fortifications of England from 1845 to 1858. The famous letter of the duke of Wellington, showing how ill prepared England was for war and against invasion, was addressed in 1847 to Burgoyne, then inspector general of fortifications. He served as lieutenant general on the staff and second in command of the British forces in the Crimea in 1854 and 1855. He was created a baronet in March, 1856. In 1859 he published, under the title of " Military Opinions," one of the best essays relating to a French invasion of England. In 1865 he became constable of the tower of London and field marshal. His "Life and Correspondence," by Lieut. Col. the Hon. George Wrottesley, was published in 1873 (2 vols. 8vo). - His only son, Hugh Talbot Burgoyne, a captain in the navy, commanded the Wrangler at the capture of Kinburn in 1855, and in 1857 received marks of distinction from Queen Victoria and Napoleon III. He was lost at sea while in command of the turret ship Captain, which foundered off Cape Finisterre, Sept. 7, 1870.