Cobirg. I. A duchy of Germany, forming with Gotha the united duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, one of the states of the empire; area of Coburg alone, 218 sq. m.; pop. in 1871, 51,709. (See Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.) II. The capital of the duchy, and alternately with Gotha the residence of the duke and seat of government of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, situated on the Itz, 185 m. S. S. W. of Berlin; pop. in 1871, 12,819. The streets are generally narrow, but there are some pleasant public walks. There are five Protestant churches and a Roman Catholic chapel, a gymnasium, an orphan asylum, an institution for the deaf and dumb, three hospitals, and a public library of 26,000 volumes. The Ehrenburg palace, one of the residences of the duke, built in 1549, has a picture gallery, valuable collections of engravings, coins, antiquities, and minerals, and a library of 27,000 volumes. The government house is a handsome structure in the Italian style. There are a town hall, arsenal, theatre, and riding school. On an eminence overhanging the town is an ancient castle of the dukes of Coburg, now in part converted into a prison and house of correction; but some of the chambers remain in their original condition, among them those occupied by Luther when concealed in the castle, where he coinposed some of his best works, and in which are his bedstead and pulpit.
During the thirty years' war the castle was unsuccessfully besieged by Wallenstein. Coburg has several dye works and breweries, and some manufactures of potash, glass, cotton and woollen goods, and toys.
Grand Ducal Palace, Coburg.
COBlRG, a town of Northumberland co., Ontario, Canada, on Lake Ontario and the Grand Trunk railway, 63 m. E. N. E. of Toronto; pop. in 1871, 4,422. It is the capital of the united counties of Durham and Northumberland; is lighted with gas, has an artificial harbor, and a town hall, with county and town offices. Victoria college, having university powers, is situated here, the faculty of law being at Montreal and that of medicine at Toronto. It is the terminus of the Coburg, Peterboro', and Marmora railway company, on which much iron ore is carried for shipment. In summer the lake steamers call here daily. The exports in 1871 amounted to $430,988; imports, $95,770.