Dollinger. I. Ignaz, a German physiologist, born in Bamberg, May 24, 1770, died in Munich, Jan. 14, 1841. He studied medicine in the universities of Wiirzburg, Vienna, and Pavia, and in 1794 was appointed professor of medicine at Bamberg; but the university having been dissolved, he became professor at Wtirz-burg, and in 1823 at Landshut, removing with that university in 1826 to Munich, where he remained until his death. His position in the history of science is mainly due to his researches in comparative anatomy and physiology. His principal works are: Naturlehre des menschlichen Organismus (1805), Grund-zuge der Physiologic (1835), Entwickelungsge-schichte des Gehirns (1814), and Grundzuge der Entwickelung des Zell-, Knochen- und Blutsys-tems (1842). He invented an improvement of the microscope. II. Johann Joseph Ignaz, a German theologian, son of the preceding, born in Bamberg, Feb. 28, 1799. He was ordained priest in 1822, and became chaplain of Markt-scheinfeld in the diocese of Bamberg. His literary productions obtained for him at the age of 24 a chair of church history and polity at the lyceum of Aschaffenburg. Three years later he was appointed professor at the university of Munich. He became one of the most influential men in the ecclesiastical affairs of Bavaria, and was soon identified with the policy of Abel's ministry.

His literary labors during this period were chiefly directed to the claims of Protestantism, and he accumulated in his works everything unfavorable to it. He wrote Kirchengeschichte von der Zeit der Reformation bis zur neuern Zeit, in continuation of Hortig's Handbuch der christlichen Kirchengeschichte, of which he prepared a new edition (Ratisbon, 1833), and commenced a Handbuch der Kirchengeschiclite on a very extensive plan, but completed only two volumes. His Lehrbuch der Kirchengeschichte (1836-'8) is also incomplete, as it leaps over the whole internal history of the middle ages, and is brought to a close at the time of the reformation. He undertook a third work, Ghristenthum und Kirche zur Zeit ihrer Grundlegung, for which he wrote a prolegomena entitled Heidenthum und Judenthum (1857), and of which the first volume appeared in 1860. In these works he sharply criticised every opposition to papal authority and received creeds; but he was equally sharp in his moral criticisms of the popes. With the fall of Abel's ministry in 1847 he lost his professorship, but he still remained provost of the collegiate church of St. Ca-jetan in Munich. In the following year he was elected to the parliament at Frankfort, where he represented in all respects the interests of the Catholic hierarchy.

He was reinstated in his chair in 1849, but foiled to regain his former influence in government circles. His observation of the movements of the ultramontanists weakened his confidence in his party, and in 1861 he gave a series of popular lectures on the prospects of the continuance of the secular power of the pope, which were appended to his Kirche und Kirchen, Papsthum und Kirchen-staat (Munich, 1861). This work roused the suspicions of the ultramontanists; it gives a synopsis and critique of the Protestant beliefs and sects, in a spirit of great moderation, and declares that Luther was the greatest man of his time. Dollinger called for a congress of learned men to discuss the subject of science and faith, the incompatibility of which had been declared in a recent work of Frohscham-mer. The meeting was held in September, 1863, and at its close he sent a telegram to the pope, saying, " On the question of the relation of science to ecclesiastical authority, the meeting has decided that the former should be subject to the latter." His Papstfabeln des Mittelalters (1863) awakened new suspicions; but in 1864 he joined several professors of theology in Munich in a public declaration of their firm orthodoxy, and of their opposition to Frohschammer and his tendency.

But the Jesuits were not satisfied, and continued their attacks upon him in the Civilta Cattolica. The result was that he became more estranged from the episcopacy, and sought his friends among the members of the ministry, who readily lent him their aid in thwarting some of the plans of his enemies. After the papal syllabus of 1864, the Jesuits began to discuss the necessity of having the infallibility of the pope formally announced as a doctrine of the church. Dollinger opposed this proposition, and published in the Augsburg Allgemeine Zeitung a series of anonymous articles, which appeared in a separate form under the title of Papst und Concil, by Janus (1869). This work was translated into English, French, and Italian, and passed rapidly through several editions; but Dollinger has only indirectly acknowledged himself the author of it. Its object is to show by means of authenticated documents that the papal power was based on fictions and frauds and on great ignorance of historical facts; but it does not relinquish the doctrines of the primacy of the pope and of the infallibility of the church. Dollinger was appointed in 1868 councillor of state for life, and as such he voted against the liberal bill for education.

When the doctrine of infallibility was adopted by the council of the Vatican, July, 1870, Dollinger was asked by the archbishop to explain his previous attitude, and to announce his willingness to submit to the decision of the council. He refused to do so, and offered to state his reasons and prove their validity before an ecclesiastical assembly. The organs of the liberal party praised his action, and nearly all the Catholic professors at the university of Munich signed an address of congratulation and sympathy. From the opposition thus excited sprang up the so-called "Old Catholic" movement in Bavaria, that designation (which had been assumed about ten years before by an organization in Baden) being adopted by 12,000 signers of a petition to the king against the teaching of the doctrine. Dollinger received also congratulatory addresses from several cities in Germany and Austria, and his name became as eminent among anti-Catholics as it had been among ultramontanists. The archbishop announced that all Catholics who continued to attend Dollinger's lectures were rendering themselves liable to excommunication, and issued a pastoral letter to the signers of the address, in which he vindicated the position of.the church, and stigmatized Bollinger and his adherents as rebels and schismatics.

The Catholic clergymen of Munich published at the same time a declaration of their implicit faith in the new doctrine. Other clergymen in different parts of the country made declarations to the same effect, and Dol-linger found himself deserted by a large majority of the several generations of theologians who had been his pupils, while the archbishop issued against him the great excommunication. Dollinger discontinued his clerical functions, although as provost of St. Cajetan, and as superior court chaplain, the court churches were at his command. With 30 of his partisans he published a declaration, reiterating their intention of adhering to the old doctrines of the church, and of rejecting every new doctrine, but declaring also that the doctrine of infallibility was based on forgeries, that it was making the pope a counterpart of the sultan of Turkey, that it was perilous to the church and society, and that the assertions to the contrary by some bishops were of no value, because others, like Archbishop Manning of Westminster, were already extending the application of the doctrine to political matters. In July, 1870, Dollinger was elected rector magnificus of the university of Munich, and confirmed as such by the king.

In February, 1872, he called a conference at Munich for the purpose of discussing a possible reunion of all the different Christian churches. After considerable debate they adjourned till Sept. 20, when a large Old Catholic congress met at Cologne. Dollinger's principal works not before mentioned are: Die Lehre von der Eucharistie in den ersten drei Jahrhunderten (Mentz, 1826); Mohammed's Religion (Ratisbon, 1838); Die Reformation, ihre innere Entwickelung und ihre Wirhungen im Umfange des lutherischen Be-kenntnisses (3 vols., 1846-8); and Hippolytus und Kallistus (1853). Several of his works have been translated into English; that on Paganism and Judaism by N. Darnell (" The Gentile and the Jew, an Introduction to the History of Christianity," London, 1862), and that on "The Church and the Churches" by W. B. McCabe (London, 1862).