Bamberg, a town of Bavaria, in the circle of Upper Franconia, on the Ludwig's canal and the river Regnitz, about 4 m. above its confluence with the Main, 33 m. N. N. W. of Nuremberg; pop. in 1871, 25,748, including 3,000 in the garrison. The inhabitants are chiefly Roman Catholics. The town is well built on eminences in a delightful and fertile region, and is divided by the Regnitz, which is crossed by five bridges. The ditches of the old ramparts have been converted into gardens and promenades, the finest of the latter being the parks of the Theresienhain on the Ludwig's canal. The most remarkable public buildings are the cathedral, one of the finest in Germany, rebuilt in Byzantine style, with monuments of the emperor Henry II. and his consort Cunignnda and of Pope Clement II., and with paintings by Tintoretto and Vandyke; and the former university and present parish church of St. Martin, built by the Jesuits at the end of the 17th century, noted for its internal beauty, with a college and library.
The collegiate church of St. Stephen is Protestant. The town contains an infirmary founded by Bishop Erthal, several medical schools, and a botanical garden; a lyceum, once a university and afterward an academical gymnasium, with complete courses of theology, philosophy, and medical science; a normal school, and many other schools. The royal library contains nearly 60,000 volumes, and there are many learned, artistic, and phihinthrop-ical institutions and associations. The principal corporation is that of the gardeners, with over 700 members and a triennial prize for officinal plants. The export of plants, vegetables, fruits, and seeds, and especially of licorice, is considerable. There are over 60 breweries. Cotton weaving employs over 1,500 persons. The transit trade has been much increased by railways as well as by the Ludwig's canal, which, extending from the Regnitz to the Altmuhl, unites the Main, and through it the Rhine, with the Danube. The view from the ruined castle of Altenberg is among the finest in Franconia. The town is supposed to have derived its name and origin in the 9th century from this castle of the counts of Baben-berg, where Philip of Swabia, the competitor of Otho IV. for the crown of Germany, was murdered in 1208 by Otto of Wittelsbach. Bamberg was formerly an independent bishopric; the 61st and last prince-bishop, Buseck, who died in 1805, retired with a pension of 40,000 florins after the secularization of the see in 1801. The bishopric then included an area of 1,400 sq. m. and a population of 200,000. It is now an archbishopric, with jurisdiction over the bishoprics of Wurzburg, Eichstadt, and Spire. The Bamberg conferences of 1854 related to the addition of the middle German states to the Austro-Prussian union.