I. A W. county of New York, bordering on Lake Erie, bounded N. by the Tona-wanda and S. by the Cattaraugus creek; area, about 950 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 178,699. It is drained and supplied with water power by Buffalo creek and several other small streams. In the N. part the surface is undulating, and the soil well adapted to grain; in the S. it is hilly, and here the land is more suitable for grazing. Iron ore, limestone, brick clay, and water cement are found in considerable quantities. The county is traversed by several railroads, and by the Erie canal, which connects with Niagara river at Black Rock, and has its terminus at Buffalo. The chief productions in 1870 were 436,193 bushels of wheat, 58,283 of rye, 346,128 of Indian corn, 1,125,-339 of oats, 246,551 of barley, 21,804 of buckwheat, 643,932 of potatoes, 143,683 tons of hay, 503,073 lbs. of cheese, 2,149,358 of butter, 158,353 of wool, and 83,015 of hops. There were 16,154 horses, 40,323 milch cows, 17,016 other cattle, 33,324 sheep, and 17,043 swine.

There were 1,429 manufactories; capital employed, $13,043,790; value of products, $27,446,683. The most important of these were 13 of agricultural implements, 8 of boats, 18 of boots and shoes, 70 of wagons, 87 of clothing, 45 of furniture, 1 of gas, 38 of iron and products of iron, 9 of dressed skins, 23 of machinery, 16 of malt, 8 of soap and candles, 55 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 19 planing mills, 63 saw mills, 4 distilleries, 42 breweries, 23 tanneries, 14 currying establishments, and 36 flour mills. Capital, Buffalo. II. A county of Pennsylvania, forming the N. W. extremity of the state, bordering on New York, Ohio, and Lake Erie; area, 740 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 65,-973. With the exception of a high ridge, several miles from the lake, and running nearly parallel with its shore, the surface is generally rolling and well watered. The soil is clayey, and in the N. part produces good crops of grain. The S. portions are mainly occupied by pasture lands. It is traversed by the Erie and Pittsburgh, the Lake Shore, the Philadelphia and Erie, the Oil Creek and Alleghany River, the Atlantic and Great Western, and the Buffalo, Corry, and Pittsburgh railroads; also by the Beaver and Erie canal.

The chief productions in 1870 were 308,315 bushels of wheat, 531,-584 of Indian corn, 743,106 of oats, 100,014 of barley, 27,464 of buckwheat, 415,989 of potatoes, 90,551 tons of hay, 165,739 lbs. of cheese, 1,896,701 of butter, and 170,825 of wool. There were 11,117 horses, 20,140 milch cows, 16,781 other cattle, 40,746 sheep, and 11,364 swine. There were 928 manufactories, with an aggregate capital of $5,717,993. The principal establishments were 19 flour mills, 15 iron works, 20 tanneries, 9 currying establishments, 14 breweries, 14 planing mills, 56 saw mills, 9 manufactories of agricultural implements, 6 of boots and shoes, 15 of bricks, 45 of carriages and wagons, 1 of cars, 5 of rectified coal oil, 20 of barrels and casks, 9 of machinery, 9 of pumps, 12 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 29 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 3 of wooden ware, 1 of wood work, and 8 of woollen goods. Capital, Erie. III. A N. county of Ohio, bordering on Lake Erie and Sandusky bay; area, 250 sq. m; pop. in 1870, 28,188. It is drained by Huron and Vermilion rivers. Near Huron river are several ancient mounds and enclosures, and at Sandusky are extensive quarries of valuable limestone. The surface is generally level, the soil alluvial and exceedingly fertile.

It is traversed by the Cincinnati, Sandusky, and Cleveland, the Sandusky, Mansfield, and Newark, and its Huron branch, and the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern railroads. The chief productions in 1870 were 239,874 bushels of wheat, 550,026 of Indian corn, 307,089 of oats, 22,865 of barley, 259,960 of potatoes, 19,523 tons of hay, 339,958 lbs. of butter, 169,905 of wool, and 54,701 gallons of wine. There were 4,813 horses, 4,700 milch cows, 3,527 other cattle, 39,751 sheep, and 7,863 swine; 2 manufactories of cars, 20 of barrels and casks, 2 of cutlery and edge tools, 13 of cured fish, 2 of hubs and wagon material, 2 of iron castings, 5 of machinery, 1 of printing paper, 3 of sashes, doors, and blinds, 10 of tin ware, 7 of cigars, 4 establishments for turning and carving wood, 15 for ship building, 2 for pork packing, 7 saw mills, 6 flour mills, 4 breweries, and 33 manufactories of wine. Capital, Sandusky.

Erie #1

Erie, a city, port of entry, and the seat of justice of Erie co., Pennsylvania, situated on Lake Erie, nearly midway between Buffalo and Cleveland, 117 m. N. of Pittsburgh; pop. in 1840, 3,412; in 1850, 5,858; in 1860, 9,419; in 1870, 19,646, of whom 6,928 were foreigners. It stands upon an elevated bluff commanding a fine view of the lake. The streets are broad, and laid out at right angles with each other. State street is the principal business thoroughfare. The city contains several parks. Among the public buildings are the post office, the custom house, and the opera house, recently constructed. The union depot, of brick, in the Romanesque style, is 480 ft. long, 88 ft. wide, and two stories high, and is surmounted by a cupola 40 ft. high. The Erie cemetery, occupying a plot of 75 acres on Chestnut street, near the city limits, is beautifully laid out with drives and walks, and is adorned with trees, flowers, and shrubbery. The Erie Extension canal (abandoned) connected the city with the Ohio river, and the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, the Philadelphia and Erie, and the Erie and Pittsburgh railroads afford communication with Buffalo, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, and the west.

The harbor, which has been artificially improved, is 3 1/2 m. long, over 1 m. wide, and from 9 to 25 ft. deep, and is protected by Presque Isle, formerly a peninsula, lying in front of the city. At the entrance are two lighthouses. There are several large docks, some of which are furnished with railroad tracks, so that the transfer of merchandise takes place directly between the vessels and the cars. For the year ending June 30, 1872, there were entered in the coastwise trade 429 steamers of 370,231 tons, and 796 sailing vessels of 267,466 tons; cleared, 427 steamers of 363,105 tons, and 867 sailing vessels of 286,960 tons; entered from Canadian ports, 59 American vessels of 16,137 tons, and 52 Canadian vessels of 8,604 tons; cleared for Canadian ports, 16 American vessels of 2,809 tons, and 41 Canadian vessels of 6,739 tons; value of imports from Canada, $131,500; exports to Canada, $48,823. There were belonging to the port 88 vessels of 16,669 tons, of which 23 of 9,376 tons were steamers, 19 of 5,231 tons sailing vessels, and the rest canal boats and barges; built during the year, 5 vessels of 3,760 tons. The principal articles of shipment are lumber, coal, iron ore, and petroleum.

The leading manufactures are of iron, embracing stoves, steam engines, machinery, car wheels, and car work, besides which there are several manufactories of bricks, leather, organs, pumps, furniture, and other wood work, a brass foun-dery, six petroleum refineries, five beer breweries, two ale breweries, three malting establishments, etc. There are four national banks, with an aggregate capital of $850,000, a safe deposit and trust company, three savings banks, and four insurance companies. Erie is divided into six wards, and is governed by a mayor, and a select council of two members and a common council of three members from each ward. It is lighted with gas, and is supplied from the lake with water, which is forced by powerful engines to the top of a tower 200 ft. high, whence it is distributed through the mains. In 1872 there were 49 public schools, viz., 1 high, 16 grammar, 30 primary, and 2 evening, having 53 teachers and an average attendance of 2,154 pupils. St. Benedict's female academy (Roman Catholic) had 17 teachers and 60 pupils. The young men's Christian association has a library of 4,710 volumes.

There are one daily and six weekly (two German) newspapers, an academy, marine hospital, city hospital, jail, orphan asylum, and 29 churches. - The French had a fort on the site of Erie, known as Fort de la Presqu'isle, about 1749, The town was laid out in 1795. A portion of it was incorporated as a borough in 1805, and in 1851 a city charter was granted. The fleet of Com. Perry during the war of 1812-15 was built and equipped here.