Hudson, a N. E. county of New Jersey, bounded E. by the Hudson river and New York bay, S. by the Kills, separating it from Staten island, S. W. and W. by Passaic river and Newark bay, and N. W. by the Ilacken-sack, which also intersects the S. W. part; area, 75 sq. m.; pop. in 1870, 129,067. It has a diversified surface, rising into hills on each side of the Hackensack. Limestone, copper, and magnetic iron ore are found. The Morris canal passes through it, and numerous railroads radiate from Jersey City and Hoboken. The value of farms in 1870 was $3,134,000; of farm productions, chiefly market vegetables, $312,-920. There were 333 manufacturing establishments, with an aggregate capital of $3,280,526, and an annual product of $24,256,017. The most important were 1 manufactory of boxes, 19 of bread, etc, 1 of cars, 25 of clothing, 1 of cooperage, 3 of crucibles, 2 of drugs and chemicals, 1 of feathers, 3 of gas, 1 of heating apparatus, 1 of India-rubber goods, 11 of iron, 3 of jewelry, 11 of machinery, 5 of marble and stone work, 2 of molasses and sirup, 4 of oakum, 1 of castor oil, 2 of paints, 2 of paper, 1 of polishing preparations, 3 of silk goods, 4 of soap and candles, 3 of steel, 8 of tin, copper, and sheet-iron ware, 37 of cigars, 1 of watches, 1 flour mill, 4 breweries, 2 saw mills, and 4 pork-packing establishments.

Capital, Jersey City.

Hudson #1

Hudson, a city and the capital of Columbia co., New York, situated on the E. or left bank of the Hudson river, at the head of ship navigation, 116 m. above New York city and 29 m. below Albany; pop. in 1850, 6,280; in 1860, 7,187; in 1870, 8,615. It is beautifully situated on rising ground, and presents a highly picturesque appearance, especially when seen from the river at a distance. A slate bluff rises abruptly from the water to a height of 60 ft., whence a ridge slopes upward for 1 1/2 m., terminating in Prospect hill, 500 ft. above the river. The principal street runs along this ridge, from Prospect hill to a public square laid out on the summit of the bluff. The city is divided into four wards, and is regularly laid out, with streets crossing each other at right angles. The principal public buildings are the court house, a handsome marble and limestone building, 116 ft. long and 60 ft. high, surmounted by a dome and faced by an Ionic portico, and the city hall, a brick edifice, containing the post office. Hudson is a terminus of the Hudson and Boston railroad, and an important station on the Hudson River railroad.

It has regular steamboat communication with Albany and New York; and from Athens on the opposite bank of the river, with which it is connected by a steam ferry, a branch of the New York Central railroad extends to Schenectady. The wharves are built on two bays at either side of the public square, and are accessible by large ships. It is said that at one time Hudson owned a larger amount of shipping than New York. It was made a port of entry in 1795, had an extensive commerce with the West Indies and Europe, and owned a number of whaling and fishing vessels. Its commerce was destroyed during the embargo and the war of 1812; and although the whaling business was resumed, it has since been entirely abandoned. Its trade, however, is still important, the principal article of export being pressed hay for the New York market. The chief manufactures are of iron. The Hudson iron company and the Columbia iron works together turn out from 60 to 75 tons of pig iron per day. There are two machine shops, two iron founderies, a stove foundery, manufactories of steam fire engines, paper car wheels, tiles, and pianos, six carriage factories, two breweries, three rectifying establishments, knitting mills, a spoke factory, a pump and block factory, a tannery, a flour mill, three national banks with a capital of $750,000, a savings bank, and 10 hotels.

The city is lighted with gas, is supplied with drinking water through iron pipes from a spring 2 m. distant, and has an efficient fire department. There are six public schools with about 1,000 pupils, an academy, three public libraries, two daily and three weekly newspapers, an orphan asylum, and 12 churches. - Hudson, originally known as Clave-rack Landing, was settled in 1783. It was incorporated as a city in 1785. A lunatic asylum was established here in 1832, but given up on the opening of the state asylum at Utica.

Hudson #2

Hudson, a township and village of Summit co., Ohio, at the junction of the Cleveland and Pittsburgh and the Cleveland, Mt. Vernon, and Columbus railroads, 25 m. S. by E. of Cleveland and 120 m. N. E. of Columbus; pop. in 1870, 1,520. The village is pleasantly situated and neatly built. It is the seat of the Western Reserve college, chartered in 1826, which has handsome grounds and five substantial college halls. In 1872-'3 the academical department had 8 professors and instructors, 52 students, and a library of 10,000 volumes; the preparatory department had 2 instructors and 47 pupils. The medical department (Cleveland medical college) is in Cleveland; it was founded in 1843, and in 1871-'2 had 14 professors and instructors, 76 students, and a library of 6,000 volumes. There is also a female seminary.